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Sergeant Howie quickly falls to the floor onto both hands as he investigates the strange and unusual burning hand,  (No sound score exists)


Howie rapidly puts out the single flame by smothering it with his left hand, A mumbling and bumbling of low level garble can be heard from the corridor from the enthusiastic Alder as he changes up into his almighty Punch outfit.


Howie pulls his left hand away from the Hand of Glory as a large amount of silvery smoke bellows up from the charred thumb.


Howie checks his hand to see that he has not injured himself before looking back at the smoking hand, Howie definitely does not appreciate this strange act from the Green man staff and being a police officer he now feels infuriated.


The mumbling sound from Alder has become much more prominent which causes the sergeant to turn his head and look ahead into the corridor, Suddenly Alder can be seen walking across the floor to another room with his Punch outfit in his right hand.


The bumbling Alder is definitely playing his part as Punch today as he fails to look into the sergeants room or even to check after the loud bang from the candle stick holder. The sight of Alder has only made things a lot more difficult for the sergeant as he reaches for the heavy candle with his right hand, What is the police officer thinking is he going to assault Alder.


A loud chinking sound is heard as the sergeant grabs the candle with a rapid speed of movement, 


Alder is completely oblivious to the sergeants serious intentions as he enters into the changing room, The sergeant stands up slowly and is now intent on giving Alder a taste of his own medicine.


The sergeant stealthily walks forward with candle stick in hand as he attempts to take Alder by surprise.


The sergeant follows the mumbling sound of Alder as he speeds up his attack approach,


The sergeant is getting much closer as he nears the edge of the changing room door


As the sergeant reaches the door to Alder he stops momentarily to evaluate the situation, Alder has literally just put the punch suit over his body as the sergeant peeps in, Alder continues to mumble some unrecognizable garble as he fumbles with his wrists to ensure they are even and that his hands protrude out, 


The scene before the police officer is only making things much worse, The hobnob Punch has angered the sergeant beyond sensible reasoning and Howies actions will seriously affect his investigation progression. Alder fumbles with his neck ruffles to ensure that the suit is properly fitted as the suit does seem to shrink a little each year.


Suddenly without warning the sergeant decides to go in for the kill and assault alder with the heavy candle stick holder, The sergeant moves at speed as he approaches Alder before raising his right hand high with candle stick in hand.


A loud thud of material is heard as Alder screams out an almighty loud and high pitched groan of pain and shock. Sergeant Howie strikes Alder in the back of the head with the heavy blunt end of the candle stick at full speed and ferocity, One strike is all that was required to send the bumbling fool sprawling and collapsing down onto the floor into a heap of rotten vegetables and fruits. As the sergeant strikes Alder he lets go off the candle stick which also falls to the floor.


Another loud wooden bang is heard as Alder collapses to the floor having become unconcious from the heavy candles impact, Alders legs raise up slightly as he hits the ground then come back down again producing a second loud bang, Alder's eyes look directly up into his eyelids as his mouth opens wide from the powerful strike, Sergeant Howie stands over Howie with a stance like attack position as he ensures that he did a good enough job of knocking Alder out.


Howie looks at the unconscious man for a few short seconds before swooping down with his right side in response to the attack, In a continuous movement Howie turns himself around to face a large mask that Alder wears every year to portray the facial features of a fool and king for the day. Howies tie lifts up from his body movements


Howie grabs the mask with both hands with a sense of urgency and interest, The clock on the mantle piece reads 2:53 pm and the second part of the procession starts at 3:00 pm sharp, 


A loud clicking sound is heard as the sergeant lifts the mask from off of a ceramic flask that was used as a support holder, 


Howie examines the piece much more closely as he holds it up with both hands, The strange and ugly facial features of the mask have caused the sergeant to think in a completely different way.


Sergeant Howie turns and looks back at Alder who is completely incapacitated, Now the sergeant is considering the crazy idea that he could impersonate Alder as Punch, What a great idea and if he can fool Lord Summerisle then he may just solve this complex and disturbing case, The sergeant is losing his marbles as his frustrations and anger get the better of him, Now that he has broken one of the ten commandments to his Christian faith what has he got to lose, after all everyone has been treating him as a bumbling idiot so why not play them at there own game.


The sergeant turns around to face Alder as a scuffling of feet is heard, The sergeant then bends down while holding the mask in his right hand.


With both hands the sergeant lifts Alder up so that he can get to his Punch suit more easily, another scuffling of feet and fabric is heard, Alder is completely out for the count and wont feel a thing.


The sergeant strains and heaves as he flips Alder over as he attempts to remove his Punch outfit.


Howie tussles with the suit in his bid to become Punch and Fool for the day. As the saying goes, If you cant beat them join them,


Howie pulls back on the awkward and bulky material as he quickly removes the suit, Time is ticking and if the sergeant wants to be Punch he must be on time so as not to expose his intentions and blow the operation wide open.


More scuffling of material is heard as the sergeant pulls at the suit.


Back at the town hall a slow and deep drum beat is heard with intervals of one second, A large sculptured plaque stares out at the excited crowd in the form of Nuada, Lord Summerisle impedes his beliefs daily onto the locals and they are required to praise and nurture Nuada continuously and on a daily basis, Anyone that decides to break away from the powerful bonding will be dealt with accordingly.


Sergeant Howie has left the Green Man pub and is on his way to the procession as Punch, He has ensured that Alder will not be able to escape or summon for help as he has tied him up securely in his room against a bed post with hands tied firmly and his mouth gagged. Alder has come to his senses slightly though still succumbed to his injuries, He moves his hands up and down while moving his mouth up and down from the forces of the gag. Alder is suffering while being tied to the bed but can do nothing as he is firmly secured and will have no choice but to wait until Willow and others return. (A distant drum beat can be heard)


The women have been given a five minute head start as they initiate and proceed first along a very beautiful and scenic route, Lord Summerisle explained at the earlier meeting that everyone will process through the village and the countryside and then down to the beach for a final ceremony and small sacrifice that will enrich and educate the people. The woman are in high spirits as they laugh and chatter loudly amongst themselves while running along the concrete road. (Birds are heard loudly tweeting)


As the women run along some look back at there friends while others carry long wooden sticks that are stimulated as swords, Most women are wearing there treasured animal masks and are having the time of there lives as they lead the procession process.


The noise is very loud from the 29 euphoric women as they chatter and laugh, They emit a keen desire to get to there destination and not a single person is sad or depressed but all possess the same feeling of happiness and fun. (Drum beat is heard)


As soon as the women disappear from view all seems strangely empty and void of people just for a few short seconds.


A moment has passed and suddenly Lord Summerisle appears, He is leading the men's procession down to the beach and is dressed as a half man half women type of figure, A man-woman, the sinister teaser, played by the community leader or priest;
A scuffling of feet is heard as the men progress down the path in a slow but orderly fashion, Lord Summerisle is dancing and jigging as he leads the large party of islanders, The Lord moves his arms up and down from right to left to left to right in a continuous action as he lifts his feet up to coincide with his hand actions. The drum is prominent and loud but now a Trumpet plays a sombre melody at a medium pace that is infused with the jingling of bells from Oaks snap dragon costume.


The Lord carries a wooden sickle in his right hand and a posy of green herbs in his left hand. The Lord also embellishes a long silky dress and wears a long black wig of hair. The Lord raises his right hand with sickle held high.


The Lord then raises his left hand as he turns in a complete 360 degree motion.


The Lord continues to turn around for a second turn as he makes his way along the scenic route.


The Lord jumps high in the air on his second turn causing his dress to lift up from the forces of movement. A loud tap is heard as the Lord lands back on his feet. Oak is moving his snap dragon up and down with rhythmic balance as he follows behind the Lord.


The Lord steadies himself as he continues his dance routine.


The Lord continues to move forward as he raises his left leg high into the air. Punch has come into view from behind the snap dragon and is swinging out from side to side with a bauble in his right hand.


The Lord then swings out with his right hand and right leg with sickle in hand as he continues to raise his left hand with the posy of herbs.


The Lord raises his left leg once again while holding up his right hand and sickle.

Punch jumps on one leg as he twists his body around to face the long line of dedicated islanders.


The Lord continues to swing his arms in an alternate pattern, The Lord raises his right hand with sickle held high while raising his left leg, Oak swings his snap dragon costume from side to side as he beams with happiness for the magical day ahead. Punch is less enthusiastic as he walks at a slow pace not really getting into the spirit of the occasion. Other islanders walk at a steady and controlled pace behind, some carry stag animal masks that they are holding to there faces with long white poles while other musicians carry there trumpets. Several other men who are sword dancers carry there sharp instruments for a required heathen act later on.


The Lord raises his left hand with posy of herbs held high while raising his right leg, The Lord is solemn and moves at a controlled pace.


The Lord repeats his movement as he raises his right hand with sickle and raising his left leg, This time however the Lord jumps up leaving the grounds surface with his feet. The sword dancers turn around anti clockwise before returning to face forward. Another musician has come into view who plays a large silver Trombone. 


The Lord continues to repeat his movements as he raises his left hand with posy of herbs and kicking out with his right leg, Oak lifts up the oval skirt of the snap dragon as the bells continue to jingle loudly.


Punch is still walking at a slow pace and is not feeling very energized for the occasion, I wonder if this is Sergeant Howie, 


Punch looks back at the following crowd as he tinkers along, Punches golden ropes that are attached to his hat swing around in the cool breeze.


The procession march forward somberly at a controlled pace, Five men wearing stag animal masks swing them from side to side as there heads turn from left to right with the movement,


(All Five bearers look to there left)


(All Five bearers look to there right)


The Lord holds his hands high as he jigs along the path, Swordsmen from behind are dancing and holding there sharp swords high in the air. Punch is swinging his bauble around with his right hand as he tries to get into the spirit of the occasion. As he swings the balloon attached to the end of the bauble it makes contact with the snap dragons costume creating a tat tat sound.


The Lord turns around in a anti clockwise motion as he looks down at his brainwashed followers, Punch looks to his right as he continues to wave his bauble around.


The Lord notices that Punch is not his normal self today and begins to question him on his lackluster performance, The Lord say's with a tone of anger, What's the matter with you MacGreagor?,


Punch turns back around.


The Lord continues, You call that dancing? Oak swings his snap dragon from side to side as he continues to smile with happiness.


Lord Summerisle continues with conviction, Cut some capers, man. Use your bladder!- Punch suddenly jumps in the air as he begins to increase his interest in the celebrations.


As the Lord holds his arms high he shouts over to Punch once again and say's, Play the fool, That's what you're here for.


The Lord turns to face Punch as he say's, I suppose you've been getting drunk at your own bar. The swordsmen begin to make contact with there swords as they hold them high, (A clinking of metal is heard) Jingles continue from the snap dragon, 


Punch strikes out with his bauble once again making contact with the snap dragon, The Lord turns back to face forward as he continues his satirical and somber dance for Nuada and Avellanau.


The Lord hops on his left leg as he raises it high in the air, The Lord then hops on his right leg raising his right hand high and lowering his left arm.


The procession from behind continues it's slow and somber march, Musicians play clarinet, another has a pair of cymbals,  while another bangs a large drum, An islander wearing a skunk animal mask has the pleasure of carrying a large John Barley bread, John Young the fish monger is also visible wearing his Salmon of knowledge costume, The butcher stands next to him wearing his bull animal mask.


The butcher taps his held out left palm with a stick that has red and white ribbons attached to it at a rhythmic pace, Every walks with there feet in unison from left to right and repeat similar to a funeral procession. (More jingles are heard)  A short and excited flurry of clarinet notes are heard for a duration of four seconds.


Another islander to the far back left sweeps his hands from left to right as he taps lightly from hand to hand, 


Punch has picked up his game as he uses his bauble to it's full potential, Punch sweeps to his right.


Punch sweeps the bauble behind him as the swordsmen look up with there weapons held high before chinking there swords,  (Cymbal crash)


Punch swings the bauble over his left should as he becomes more affluent at the Punch role.


Lord Summerisle lowers both of his arms before raising his left leg up and then raising his hands back into the air before lowering them again. The lord then jumps up high as he straightens his arms and holds them high in the air.


A trumpet plays a high pitched siren of notes that are prolonged for seven seconds, A scratching metallic sound of swords rubbing together is heard as the swordsmen make contact. The swordsmen move around in a circle as they intertwine there swords together and move them in a up and down motion to create friction.


After a few short seconds the swordsmen stop there rapid movements of there blades and stand motionless while pulling there blades away from the infused star like pattern that almost mimics Nuada the Sun God.


The swordsmen turn there hands out after creating the symbol to ignite and please Nuada.


A loud thud is heard as the swordsmen thrust there swords into the ground to honor Avellanau the Goddess of the Orchards. A red colored sword swings out slightly before resting in the soft earth a symbol of power and immortality.


Musicians continue to play the somber sound as they slowly march further into the countryside (Cymbal Crash),  


The procession move up and down with a slow and controlled pace as they think about Nuada and the importance of today. The procession is a great time to prepare one's mind emotionally and spiritually before the lead up to the main event.


Musicians exert extreme effort as they blow into ther musical mouth pieces, The sound is quite fitting for Nuada and Avellanua and they will be pleased that they have chosen such a delighful musical tribute.


The swordsmen begin to twist around at high speed with there swords held high, The men's kilts spin and raise up from there rapid movements.


A violinist and a musician blowing on some Scottish bagpipes provides additional sound for the somber melody.


Swords are lowered before the swordsmen begin there 360 degree twist.


The swordmen are out in force as they show off there fighting and athletic skills,


3 pairs of swordsmen reenact a duel as they clank swords together.


As the swordsmen make contact with there swords they turn around in opposite directions of each other while holding there swords high in the air before making contact with there swords again - Clacking of metal is heard)


John Young the fishmonger is making further progress into the countryside as he walks with another man who wears a fox animal mask.


A swooping sound is heard as the three swordsmen facing forward rapidly swipe there swords over the heads of there fellow competitors with there right hands,  The three swordsmen facing away from view quickly duck to prevent serious injury.


More Swordsmen jump high as there sparring partners strike out at there competitors feet, (More sounds of swiping swords are heard) 


The swordsmen that jumped then strike back with there swords in defense.


The butcher is wearing a dual mask that has a bulls head on either side of his head,


The swordsmen hold there swords up high as they all make contact with each other, (More clanking of metal is heard) Three strikes are made at a high position in fast succession


One strike is made to the middle zone as the swordsmen point there swords in a downwards position.


A continuous flurry of sword strikes are made in a high position.


The long and orderly procession continue there somber and meticulous march in unison towards the next stage of the ceremony. The swordsmen at the front of the line continue to joust and dance with there competitors while musicians continue to play there somber sound. The Lord leads the pack as he continues to raise one arm and one leg to his right and then one arm and one leg to his left in a continuous motion, Others shake there sticks and ribbons from one side to the other in rhythm with everyone else.


The islanders are all individuals as they wear uniquely different animal masks of various fabrics and colors, Some prefer to have there faces visible while others prefer to be incognito.


The islanders continue to sway from one side to the other in unison as they celebrate Nuada and Avellanau.


All the females have segrated into a large group and are 5 minutes ahead of the slower mens march, Like so many religions and cults men and women are judged and treated accordingly to there sex, Even the school in Summerisle is for Girls only while the May pole dancing was exclusively for boys. Several women look behind at the approaching males as they banter and trott forward, They scream, laugh, and chatter loudly amongst themselves as they anticipate the next stage of the ceremony process. A woman wearing a light blue flowery dress and large dog animal mask turns her head around and as she does so the mouth of the dog mask snaps up and down in rapid succession to imitate a real dog.


All of the women carry small tambourines in there right hands which produce a loud jingling. Willow, Mrs Rose and the Librarian are in the middle of the crowd, All three wear are wearing dresses and carry wooden sword sticks but don't have masks on. Miss Rose wears a full white dress, The Librarian wears a white top with an Orange dress, While Willow wears a multi colored dress of Red Blue and Purple.


The Lord is still in his dancing routine and will continue to do so until he reaches the next stage, The Lord raises his right leg while raising both of his arms with sickle and posy of herbs in hand before lowering them again. Oak rocks his snap dragon up and down while Punch swings his bauble and balloon around in an up and around motion then a complete 360 degree twist. Jingles are heard from the snap dragon


Punch continues to swing his bauble from side to side as Oak sways up and down. Punch continues to swing his bauble from side to side as Oak sways up and down. Lord Summerisle swings his hands down then back up as he crosses them over each other then repeats.


Suddenly Miss Rose, Willow, and the Librarian turn around at the sight of Punch and Oak, In unison the three women hold there wooden swords out above there chests as they rapidly move forward towards Punch and Oak, After a few flurried steps the women instantly raise there right legs in unison before lowering them again as they continue forward.


The women then raise and lower there left legs as they continue forward.


As they reach Punch they rapidly raise there right legs before lowering them again in unison, They laugh loudly with fun and excitement as they reach up with Punch, Each woman is carry a wooden sword stick in each hand and Punch has been taken by surprise.


As the women surround Punch they strike out with there wooden swords and begin to make contact with Punch, A loud snapping sound is heard as the sticks snap in and out.


Miss Rose snaps at Punch from behind as he tries to get away from the laughing and ecstatically happy women. 


Punch turns around to face the women as Miss Rose continues to snap at the Fool for a day and Simpleton of the village.


The women scream with intense fun and excitement at there extreme and irritating act that Punch is enduring.

The snapping sound continues as the women continue there onslaught, Miss Rose is aiming for a tender part of the body but it is all in good fun. All the women are now ganging up on Punch as they attack with a ferocious speed, Punch is not enjoying the show and shouts out loudly with dissatisfaction, "NO" as he tries his best to defend himself.


Miss Rose is getting her own back after the sergeant tossed a dead rabbit at her inside Lord Summerisles castle a few days earlier.


Miss Rose lunges at Punch around his groin area as she laughs loudly from the displeasure of Punch, More snapping is heard


Lord Summerisle is also ecstatically elated and happy with the proceedings of the day, He raises his arms before quickly turning around to face the congregated women.


The women shriek and wah wah as they strike out at Punch with speed and voracity, Willow aims her wooden swords at Punches head as he raises his hands in an attempt to shield himself from the mischievous women, Miss Rose almost falls over as she lunges at Punch from a bending position, The Lord turns back to face the women and Punch and shouts with delight and to urge the women to try harder, He say's, That's more like it!


Willow is enjoying her time tormenting Punch much to his irritation.


Punch strikes out with his bauble towards Willow as he tries to deflect the snapping swords, Lord Summerisle shouts out again, Good Good in complete satisfaction of the three women's performance, 


Miss Rose turns around so that her back is now facing Punch, Punch is striking out with his bauble in a downwards motion as Lord Summerisle raises his arms, 


Miss Rose sticks her bottom out as an offering for Punch to hit it with his bauble,


Punch quickly strikes the teachers backside with the balloon as she shrieks loudly with fun from the light contact. (Loud thud is heard) Willow runs off to the right as she looks back at Punch and the other women, The Librarian is taking a more lighter defensive approach and is keeping her distance from Punch in case he strikes out with his bauble.

Miss Rose quickly turns to her right as she touches her bottom with her left hand from the reaction of the strike, Her feet almost lift from the floor from the impact and delight of the play fight. Lord Summerisle has his arms raised again as he oversees the mayhem.


Punch quickly turns around to face Willow who is now on the attack, Willow shrieks with fun and happiness as she torments Punch.


The librarian has now moved into position to continue on the backside game, She bends down and pushes her bottom against Punch as she laughs wildly.


The librarian ha ha's and laughs loudly with fun as she turns back around to face Punch, She holds her left side hip with her left hand as she strikes out again with her wooden sticks as the rest of the women laugh with total enjoyment.


Willow jigs to her right as she bends down slightly as she watches the other women snap and attack Punch with there sticks.


Willow offers her backside to Punch again as he takes up the offer and strikes her bottom with the large balloon at the end of the bauble, 


A high pitched trumpet note is heard as the snap dragon raises high into the air, 


As the snap dragon flops back down people begin to scream loudly and there is a lot of noise and commotion. One of the islanders has bent down and is totally consumed by the large oval dress as it opens wide from the downwards motion swallowing the women alive. More screaming is heard as the women disappears from view.


The snap dragon raises up again this time consuming an islander who is wearing a chicken face mask, Another person reaches out for her as the dress covers her over,


The chicken faced islander screams loudly as the red fabric covers her in full entirety, 


The woman vanishes inside the costume as she screams loudly with excitement.


Jingles and loud screams persist as Oak raises the costume up once more.


The camera pans left to reveal a host of animal faces and happy festival revellers.


The men and the woman have now caught up with each other as the mayhem ensures.


Oak continues to raise and lower his snap dragon costume as everyone cheers and shouts with elation.


Underneath the oval dress reveals the intricate design and mechanical workings that make up the costume, This is the sight every islander will experience if they are swallowed by the large flowing dress.

Alder has come to his senses a little more as he groans and strains from his concussion and tightly bound bonds, 

As Alder suffers he slowly turns his head to his right as he looks at the slightly ajar door, All is silent and no one is going to rescue him at this time of day as everyone is attendance at the May Day festival.

A deep drum kick is heard at a continuous beat including loud Jingles, The atmosphere has quietened down some what as Punch walks forward at a slow and controlled pace. 


A scrunching of feet is heard on the soft grass as the islanders continue to there destination, Lord Summerisle raises his left hand with the posy of green herbs while lifting his right leg up. (No musicical instruments are playing except the rhetoric drum beat)


The Lord then raises his left leg as he raises his right hand with sickle, 


The Lord then quickly turns around to face the crowd from behind, Punch continues to swing his bauble around from left to right as he walks slowly forward.    


The Lord then raises both of his hands as Oak raises the front of his snap dragon costume, 


The Lord then swings his arms up high as the islanders watch his movements with commitment and learning. Punch on the other hand has turned away from the Lord as he looks at the somber islanders from behind.


More jingling is heard as Oak lifts the oval dress as high as he possibly can to acknowledge the Lords movements and strong beliefs.


The islanders are now moving there bodies and arms to the rhetoric beat of the base drum, They move from one side to the other in unison and harmony as they touch there left hands with there sticks before raising the stick and repeating the movement. (Birds can be heard tweeting)


Recognisable faces are visible in the long procession including, Miss Rose, Willow, The Libraian, John Young, The Butcher, A local fisherman, The grave digger, and many more.


Islanders wave there sticks with ribbons attached high in the air from side to side causing the materials to snake and glide with elegance.


Willow moves from side to side with her wooden sticks as she becomes one entity with the deeply brainwashed community. T.H.Lennox the chemist and part time photographer stands behind Willow wearing a foxes mask, He also carries a vintage camera which he will use later on to capture the moment.


An islander wearing an Owl mask straddles by as the women wearing a dog mask follows behind with her hands clasps together.


The five men wearing stag masks also straddle from side to side to the beat of the drum. (Jingles continue to be heard)


Another islander wearing a cat mask comes into view, 


A horse and cart suddenly appears from behind, The cart consists of the coachmen who wears a strange fox or other animal type of mask, Next to him is another person who wears a full rabbit animal costume from head to toe, There is a wreath around the ears of the head and there is no expression on the face , The next strange oddity is a large bush of leaves and vines, This odd tangled pile of shrubbery is in significance to the Green Man, The Foliate head is completely covered in leaves and is a symbol of and praise for Avellanau the Goddess of the Orchard. Someone is inside the green leaves and is in deep contemplation as it is they who would give there life for there deities.


The sound of Horses hooves is heard as the cart travels along the ground.


Punch turns around from the sound of the horse as he looks over at the cart.


The rabbit costume rocks from side to side as it is transported on the special cart, Another islander who wears a fish mask walks slightly behind the cart and has his left hand rested on the left shoulder of the coachman while another walks behind him. The coachman looks to his left as he also rocks gently from the cart and horses movements.


Punch looks back ahead after observing the strange cart and it's occupants.


The Lord raises his right leg as he raises his left arm with the posy of herbs, 


The Lord then raises his left leg as he raises his right arm with the sickle, Punch swipes his bauble slowly to his left with his right hand.


The Lord then raises his left hand while raising his right leg. Punch turns to face the snap dragon costume. (Birds are heard tweeting)


A bird rapidly flits across the sunset of Summerisle as the clouds slowly drift left, The ceremony is based on time and every year the islanders carry out this time critical celebration as the small sacrifice is always just before sun down for the delight and pleasure of Nuada and Avellanau.


Oak raises his snap dragon costume as he follows his master to the next stage of the celebrations, The Lord hops on his left leg while swinging his arms to the left, (Punch swings his bauble to his right)


The Lord then swings his arms to his right as he hops on his right leg, Punch makes light contact with the back of the snap dragon.


The Lord repeats by swinging his arms to the left and raising his left leg at a slow and controlled pace, (Drum continues to beat) Punch swings his bauble back behind him


The Lord swings his arms to his right once again as he lifts his right leg. Punch swings out in front of him


The Lord then raises his arms in front of him as he lifts up his left leg. Punch swings to his right.


The Lord has led the islanders to a sacred place that consists of large rocks similar to Stonehenge, As the ceremony is based on time this location is ideal for the next stage of the festivities, Oak raises his snap dragon costume once again as the long snaking crowd follow behind,  Punch swings forward


The Lord raises his right leg as he outstretches his arms parallel with his shoulders,  
(Oak lowers his snap dragon suit)


The Lord then turns in to face the large rock formations as he lifts his left leg and holds his hands outstretched in front of him, (Oak raises his snap dragon suit) Punch makes light contact with the back of the snap dragon.


The Lord then lifts his right leg as he stretches his arms high at either side, (Oak lowers his snap dragon suit)


The Lord then raises his left leg as he holds his hands outstretched once again in front of him. (Oak raises his snap dragon in rhythm with the proceedings)


(A bird tweeting is heard) (Drum continues to play) The Lord sways his arms to his right as he lifts his left leg.


A light scuffling of earth is heard as the Lord hops on his left leg while crossing his arms together.


The Lord begins to walk forward in rhythm one foot at a time with the drum at a controlled pace, He is somber and does not show any facial expressions of any kind.


Oak lowers his snap dragon costume then raises it high as the skirt flips over to reveal the white material underneath, The Lord has nearly reached the stone circle that consists of six outer stones and one central inner. This sacred place was used a few days earlier for a dancing and singing ceremony with twelve dancing and naked girls, The central stone was on fire and the girls were leaping over it.


Oak has a face of solitude and deep thoughts as he slowly breaks away from his master to make his way a little further in towards the stone circle (jingles ring) Everyone is eartly quiet as they make there way closer to the sacred stones.


Lord Summerisle suddenly stops dead in his tracks as the many swordsmen behind him continue to filter through into the sacred area, (The Deep base Drum has stopped it's rhetoric beat) All is quiet except the tweeting of birds and jingles from the snap dragon.


Oak is making his way over to the other side of the central stone circle as Punch rests his bauble to the soft grass, Punch turns and watches as Oak glides his costume to a more suitable position as the swordsmen slowly come forward with there swords held up with there right hands. Punch then turns to look at the swordsmen as they come forever closer. Oak turns around at the stone circle so that he is positioned on the other side ready for the next step of the proceedings.


Three swordsmen are slowly walking around the sacred circle, As each puts there right leg in front they bend the foot in to meet parallel with there left before bring back out again, They repeat this movement for each left and right step, Three more swordsmen are on the other side of the circle and they also carry out the same foot movements. The Lord stands silent and motionless against the edge of the circle as he looks into outer space and deep contemplation for Nuada, Oak lowers his snap dragon suit slightly as he looks ahead at his master.


More swordsmen are following suit behind the three on each side, They have split into two groups and will encircle the sacred stones, Suddenly Lord Summerisle raises both of his hands in unison high into the air as Oak raises his costume up slightly. No sound score exists


No sooner as he raised his arms he then brings them back down again in unison, He signals with his face to Oak that something is required of him as he looks ahead with an opaque expression. The swordsmen continue to filter in from behind the Lord in a slow procession of silence and unity.


The Lord is seriously about his ceremonies and takes each year with a sense of hope pride and a yearning to learn and improve on the ways of the old gods.


The Lord is authorizing Oak to perform a unique performance in front of the stone circle to enable the next stage to come to fruition.


Oak looks down as he tilts and lowers the snap dragons dress low to the floor, The bells jingle loudly as Oak shakes the costume from side to side as he follows the Lords instructions.


The Lord now raises his arms up with sickle and posy of herbs as he instructs Oak to raise up again.


Oak shakes the costume from side to side as he slowly raises back to a standing position.


The bells attached to the bottom of the oval dress jingle wildly as Oak moves from side to side.


Only the sounds of birds and the jingles can be heard.


The Lord now raises his hands as high as he can above his head to instruct Oak to do the same,


Oak instantly raise his snap dragon costume as high as he possibly can, This causes the dress at the front to flail out wildly to a full extension as Oak lowers himself to just a few feet from the floor.The swordsmen are motionless and silent as they stand three to each side of the sacred stone.


Oak comes down quickly creating a powerful draft of air that causes the dress to expand and glide out.


The Lord lowers his hands to instruct Oak to do the same, As Oak brings his costume low to the floor he backs away from the sacred stone circle.


The Lord now has his hands by his side and stands motionless as Oak continues his ritualistic routine for Nuada and Avellanau.


Birds are heard cooing, Oak looks down as his snap dragon costume slowly moves up and down before coming to a stop.


The Lord watches Oak for a few fleeting seconds in solitude and deep contemplation.


Suddenly the Lord turns around to face the large crowd that has accumulated from behind.


The Lord begins to slowly walk forward towards the two large stones as more islanders are seen walking forward from the right.


The Lord continues to walk forward a few solitary steps as birds tweet but all is deathly silent, The swordsmen are motionless and most people standing near the large stones are also motionless except for a few islanders who are just making there way to the sacred spot. 

The Lord suddenly turns back around to face Oak and the six swordsmen.

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The six swordsmen now stand around the sacred stone circle, Each man has occupied one of the six stones and they are holding there swords up high in the air with there right hands.

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Suddenly the swordsmen lower there right hands and place them around each others backs while connecting there left hands with the next persons right to create a ring. A low level thud sound is heard as the swordsmen all react and move at the same time to create the ring.

Hybrid beasts, i.e. creatures composed of parts from different animals, appear in the folklore of a variety of cultures as legendary creatures. Remains similar to those of mythological hybrids have been found in burial sites discovered by archaeologists. Known combinations include horse-cows, sheep-cows, and a six-legged sheep. The skeletons were formed by ancient peoples who joined together body parts from animal carcasses of different species. The practice is believed to have been done as an offering to their gods. Hybrids can be classified as partly human hybrids (such as Mermaids or Centaurs, or non-human hybrids combining two or more non-human animal species (such as the griffin or the chimera). Hybrids often originate as zoomorphic deities who, over time, are given an anthropomorphic aspect.


Image Above - The Anggitay is a creature with the upper body of a female human and the lower body of a horse from waist down. They were the Philippine counterpart to the centauride, the female centaurs. They are also believed to be the female counterpart of the Tikbalang. They are sometimes depicted as having a single horn in the middle of their forehead, just like a unicorn. They were usually said to be attracted to precious gemstones and jewelry.


Satyrs, the minor forest gods of Greek mythology, had the face, torso, and arms of a man, the ears and tail of a goat, and two goatlike legs. Fond of the pleasures associated with Dionysus (or Bacchus), the god of wine, they were full of playful and sometimes violent energies, and spent much of their time chasing the beautiful nature spirits known as nymphs. Satyrs show up over and over in ancient art. The Greek god Pan, with his reed pipes and mischievous delight in life, had the appearance and character of a satyr but greater powers. Notice how satyr is pronounced; it's quite different from satire.


Fauns are a peculiar, chimeric race: half goat, half human. With horns, hairy legs, hooves, and a twitchy tail, they might not sound like the loveliest characters, but they have their own undeniable charm. You can’t help but love their faces, which combine pointy ears and a head full of woolly curls with youthful features, sparkling eyes, and a roguish smile.

Above the waist, these woodland creatures have handsome male bodies with lithe limbs. Below the waist, they have two goat legs, which make them extremely nimble dancers. While they’re not especially fond of clothing, they like to adorn themselves with crowns of leaves and berries from their woodland home, especially before one of their legendary parties. 

Fauns are merry creatures, and they have a talent for brightening the hearts of others. If you are waylaid by a group of them, you can be sure that you’re not going to get away any time soon. The little creatures will lure you into their festivities with their dancing, jokes, and delicious food.

Of course, they are best known for their flute playing. With just a small, wooden flute, they can hypnotize you with fantastic melodies. Hardly anyone can resist a Faun with a flute, and in truth, the power of their flutes has led some of them to act up, luring travelers into the forest, where they get lost, or stealing the hearts of beautiful maidens away from the rest of the world.


Inmyeonjo (Hangui : 인면조, Hanja : 人面鳥, literally Human face bird) is an imaginary creature that appears in Korean myths as a bird with human face. Most of them are women, and some are male. Inmyeonjo is known as a sacred bird that connects the sky with the land, often appearing in the ancient tomb mural of Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the case of Goguryeo, it can be found in several tomb murals such as the Anak County tombs,  the ancient Dukheungri tombs, the Samsilchong, and the Mooyongchong. Named as Cheonchu(天秋) and Mansei(萬歲) in the ancient Dukheungri tombs in Nampo, South Pyongan Province in 1976, they are a symbol of longevity, known to live for a thousand years, In the case od Silla, the gilt-bronze shoes excavated in Gyeongju is shown. In the case of Baekje, four inmyeonjos are found in the Gilt-Bronze Incense of Baekje. In particular, there are many opinions that inmyeonjo in the Silver Cup with Bronze Stand(銅托銀盞) is the same as it in Goguryeo for a symbol of longevity. On the other hand, there are some opinions that it is Kalavinka because of the shape of the wings. Kalavinka is a imaginary creature that tells the Buddha's world that appear in ancient Indian Myths and Buddhist texts. Meanwhile, in the opening ceremony of the 2018 Winter Olympic Games in PyeongChang, inmyeonjo attracted the attention of the whole world.


ycanthropy (a rare, psychological condition that causes people to believe they’re changing into a wolf or other animal)
food poisoning hypertrichosis (a rare, genetic disorder causing excessive hair growth)
hallucination, possibly caused by hallucinogenic herbs
Throughout the centuries, people have used werewolves and other mythic beasts to explain the unexplainable. In modern times, however, most believe werewolves are nothing more than pop culture horror icons, made famous thanks to Hollywood’s 1941 flick, The Wolf Man.

The Alkonost and the Gamayun are mythological creatures with the body of a bird and the head of a beautiful woman. They derive from Slavic and Old Russian folklore, and are described as mythical beings that have the ability to mesmerize humans with their enchanting voices.
References and depictions of Alkonost and Gamayun can be found in Russian chronicles, on 13 th century cathedral monuments, and on jewels from the era of Kiev Russia. The Alkonos is typically described as a creature of the dawn while the Gamayun is related with the heavens.

The Alkonost
The Alkonost exudes beauty and docility and, filled with contentment, flies around projecting a sound that is both exquisite and hypnotising.  She enamours those who hear her voice and mentally immobilizes them until they disregard everything in order to hear her delightful melodies.  Her eggs are laid on the sea-shore and then placed in the ocean. According to one version of Slavic folklore, she is able to regulate the weather to her liking; there is a calm before a storm for seven days until the eggs fully hatch.

It is not known for certain where the myth truly originates from but it is believed that the mythical beings may stem back to Greek Mythology. Alkonost’s name is said to have come from Alcyone, a Greek goddesss, who was transformed into a kingfisher. Similarly, the Alkonost with her spellbinding vocal chords and half woman and half bird form is comparable to Sirens, which she is often depicted with. Sirens were dangerous yet beautiful creatures in the form of half-woman and half-fish, although later they took the form of half-woman, half-bird. They lured sailors with their enchanting music and voices, leading them to their deaths. The Siren is essentially associated with sorrow and darkness—records tells us that a Siren would arrive on Apple Spas in the apple orchard full of sorrow but in the afternoon Alkonost emerges to rejoice and laugh. She also sang beautiful songs to the saints and foretold future joys, but they charmed humans (especially merchants) with their exquisite voices until they forgot everything related to earth, followed the divine creatures until they died of lethargy and perished in the sea. Image below is of a Siren


The Jengu is a creature with origins in African mythology, legend and folklore. In particular, accounts of their existence are first recorded within the mythology, legend and folklore of the Duala, Bakweri, and other Sawa ethnic groups in Cameroon. They are said to possess some link or association with an African water spirit, Mami Wata. The Jengu looks like a mermaid or merman of African descent. From the waist up, its skin is Black, its hair color and texture is full and wooly, and its face is very close in resemblance to surface dwellers from the surrounding lands. Below the waist, its fish tail is similar to that of the various fish that live within its waters, although longer and more serpentine, as fitting proportions to the Jengu's body.
The physical build of a Jengu tends to range from sleek and lithe to hearty and athletic. And those which wear accessories tend toward jewelry and other baubles common to their surface dwelling counter parts, according to gender and social status. That is, as long as said accessories do not hinder much from swimming.


Zhulong or Zhuyin, also known in English as the Torch Dragon, was a giant red solar dragon and god in Chinese mythology. It supposedly had a human's face and snake's body, created day and night by opening and closing its eyes, and created seasonal winds by breathing.

The Candle Dragon (zhu yin or ‘illuminating the darkness’ is only mentioned in a few ancient texts and one of them is the ‘Classic of Mountain and Sea’ ('shan hai jing'), dated to  around 500 BC – 200 BC and recorded many of China’s most fantastic myths and legends. One legend says that to the north of the Chishui River beyond the distant Northwest Sea, there was a mysterious mountain named Zhangwei Mountain, in which lived a magical god of mountain.
This magical god had a human head and a red, curving snake-like body of more than 1000 li long (1 li means a half-kilometer (500 meters), in the form of a serpent.
His slanting eyes- one of them represented the sun, the other the moon - were quite different from human eyes.
They usually vertically hung on his face. One legend says to the north of the Chishui River beyond the distant Northwest Sea, there was a mysterious mountain named Zhangwei Mountain, in which lived a magical god of mountain.

The Classic of Regions Beyond the Seas: The North" section (8) describes Zhuyin on Bell Mountain (鍾山, Zhōngshān):
The deity of Mount Bell is named Torch Shade. When this deity's eyes look out there is daylight, and when he shuts his eyes there is night. When he blows it is winter, and when he calls out it is summer. He neither drinks, nor eats, nor breathes. If this god does breathe, there are gales. His body is a thousand leagues long. Torch Shade is east of the country of Nolegcalf. He has a human face and a snake's body, and he is scarlet in colour. The god lives on the lower slopes of Mount Bell. (tr. Birrell 2000:121)

The sun went down and darkness fell, when he closed his eyes and when he opened them, the world turned into daytime.

Image Above - The sacred bull Nandi or Nandin is the vehicle and gatekeeper of Hindu deity Lord Shiva, the creator, which is why it is enshrined in the form of statue at Hindu Shiv temples. The revered Nandi is the reason why bulls are considered sacred vahanas or vehicles of Lord Shiva.

In the ancient Hindu treatise called the Saura Purana, Nandi the bull is described in all his splendor, with ornaments that glow with the fire of a thousand suns, three eyes, and a trident held in his hand. He is four armed, much like a Second Shiva.


The Manticore, a mythological Greek beast was a fearsome sight, with the body of a lion, and the mane to match, the Manticore had a humanoid head, which was teamed with the tail from the deadly scorpion. A striking sight the Manticore was even more fearsome when viewed from up-close, with a row of sharp pointed teeth that could strike fear into the most brave warrior. The Manticore was incredibly deadly and dangerous due to a number of factors, the Manticore had the speed and agility from its lions body, enabling the Manticore to reach speeds that a mere mortal would be unable to compete with in a chase. It also possessed the powerful legs and claws of the lion, meaning up close it would be able to tear through flesh with ease. The Manticore also had the intimidating and deadly scorpion tale, which was additionally laced with barbs, allowing the Manticore to fire projectile spikes at it’s opponents. If the Manticore’s projectiles were to strike flesh, they would inflict poison and rendering anyone they struck useless and powerless.
With its humanoid head, the Manticore was able to make noises and sounds, but due to all accounts, was unable to speak. Instead the Manticore would make musical sounds, which was a tell if you were concerned there was a Manticore in the near vicinity. 


Long rumoured to be wild in India, the Manticore was never though to exist in Europe or America, although it has been rumoured to have been seen in Greece. The Manticore was reported to have prowled the jungles of India, hunting its prey and scaring the natives.

Manticore Greek Mythology
The Manticore was one of the Greek Mythological creators has its origins in Persia, where the Manticore was referred to as the ‘man eater’ or its Persian name Martyaxwar. Later the Manticore would receive more notoriety thanks to a Greek writer, Flavius Philostratus, who recorded a conversation alluding to the existence of the mythical Manticore.

“As the hunters gathered round in the dusty night, they wondered whether hunting the fabled Manticore was a wise idea. It didn’t matter now, the decision had been made, and no musical sounds had been heard yet. However as the hunters settled in their camp, they heard some muffled whistling, with their weapons ready, the hunters felt their heartbeat rise, was this the legendary Manticore or just a trick of the wind. Only one hunter made it back, he never saw the Manticore with his own eyes, but his colleagues fell one by one, until he could stand firm no longer.


Name:  Scorpion Men, Aqrabuamelu, Girtablilu

Features:  Body and torso of a man, lower body of a scorpion

Source:  Mesopotamian Mythology

Habitat:  Ancient Middle East

Of all the mythical hybrids of ancient legends, these creatures were one of the most threatening to exist.  Their head and torso was that of a strong, muscular man.  Their body, legs and sting were of that of a scorpion.

These hybrid monsters had a huge arching tail that ended with a giant sting.  Just like real scorpions, their tails were loaded with deadly venom – theirs was filled with a poison so strong it could kill a full grown man in just seconds. 

Not only did they have venomous stings, these monsters also had god like powers and were the best archers in the land.  It is said that every arrow they ever shot always hit its target with a fatal accuracy.

They were also said to be guardians of the gates to heaven.  They stood so tall that their heads touched the clouds and they had the power to turn people to stone with just one glance.

According to Mesopotamian legend, Tiamat goddess of the seas was the one who gave birth to the set of these dreadful creatures.  The Scorpion men came into existence shortly after Tiamat’s husband Apsu was killed and her daughter enslaved.

She sent her offspring off to battle against the other younger gods as revenge for what had happened to her family.  Her children won numerous battles against the gods until Marduk stepped in and sent them to the underworld.

The powerful and deadly twins were also busy tending to the sun god Shamash.  When the sun rose, they parted the gates.  When the sun would set, they did the same.  That is also when they would retire back to the underworld where they punished the dead.  They would torture the dead by making them lie on their bellies and eat dirt.

In the ancient poem “Epic of Gilgamesh”, these deadly guardians questioned Gilgamesh as he tried to pass through the gates of the twin peaks of Mount Mashu.  By his responses, they deducted that he was also part god and granted him entrance.


Cow in Hinduism is highly revered and considered as a Mother, nourishing life. Scriptures state that “Kamadhenu”- Bestower of Desires, manifested on earthly planes during the churning of the cosmic ocean and was presented to the Saptharishi’s. She was ordered by Brahma to provide Milk and other products to the sages. Kamadhenu Or Surabhi known as the mother of all cows is bestowed with miraculous powers to confer anything desired by the one who worship her.
The Body of a Cow is thought to house all 33 Crore Gods Of Hindu Dharma. We have all grown up with popular stories of Bhagwan Sri Krishna as the Cowherd surrounded by his herd of cows. As per Hindu Shashtra, Cow is the only earthly being being thought to have a direct connect with the Sun through a vein running through her backbone “Surya Ketu Nadi”.
This connect enables the cow to produce Gold mineral in her blood and hence her Milk, Ghee and Urine is tinged a Light yellow. The story of Kamadhenu appears in the Vedas, which makes it very, very old.


Image Above - Cosmic Mother - Devi Kamdhenu Ambika - Devi Parashakthi Matha (Eternal Mother) The four legs of Cow symbolize the four texts of the Vedas, while the teats are four Purusharthas, the goals of all human life: Righteousness, prosperity, love and liberation. While the horns symbolize the gods, the sun is exemplified by the face as is the moon. The shoulders are a symbol of Agni, the god of fire. Therefore, all that is sacred can be found in the cow.

Kamadhenu is known to exist in five different forms: Nanda, Sunanda, Surabhi, Sumana, and Susheela. Other names are Sabala and Matrika. Kamadhenu is regarded as the divine mother of all cows. Like her daughter Nandini, Kamadhenu could grant a wish to any true seeker.

Kamadhenu symbolizes Dharma, the right, orderly way of living and being.

She is said to stand steadily upon the earth on all four feet during Satya Yuga or the world’s first age of truth, three feet during Treta Yuga, the second stage of less than perfection, and only one leg during the Kali Yuga or dark ages.

Different texts provide diverse versions of the story of Kamadhenu’s birth. One of them says that this Divine Cow emerged from the Ocean of milk or Kshira Sagar during the churning of the oceans.

In this story from Hindu mythology, there was a battle between the gods (devas or suras) and demons (asuras). However, the devas and the asuras managed to work together, churning the oceans to obtain the milk of immortality. All sorts of elements appeared from that churning, not only the nectar, but also different goddesses, trees, magical objects, poisons and Kamadhenu, the cow. In the end, the gods kept the nectar from themselves.

Daksha’s daughter.. 
According to the Anushasana Parva, a book of the Sanskrit epic Mahabharata, Kamadhenu was the daughter of Daksha, the creator of the world, also called Prajapati. She came to life from Daksha after he consumed Amrita, the nectar of immortality that was created from the churning of the oceans. The cow is therefore regarded as the mother of the world and the child of Lord Brahma, in some legends.

Ramayana, a holy Hindu epic describes Surabhi or Kamadhenu as a daughter of one of the seven sages, Kashyapa, and his wife Krodhavasa, born of Lord Brahma.

According to the Vishnu and Bhagwat Purana, Surabhi is the daughter of Daksha and Sage Kashyapa’s consort.


Garuda is an immortal bird-god, beloved by Hindus and Buddhists alike. This golden character is so mighty, he has been known to exterminate entire oceans full of snakes and to defeat entire armies of gods in one battle. Fortunately, he fights on the side of the righteous—most of the time! With nicknames like “king of the birds” and “he who has beautiful feathers,” Garuda is bound to be a glorious sight. According to Hindu tradition, he has the torso and arms of a strong man with golden skin. Red wings with long, glimmering feathers spread from behind his back and stretch up to a mile wide. Beneath the knee, his legs are covered with golden scales that lead down to eagle’s feet with talon like curved daggers. His face is white and can be completely human, human with a beak, or completely eagle. A traditional Hindu crown with several golden tiers sits on top of his head, and he wears snakes that he has defeated in battle as jewelry. Altogether, he is large enough to block out the sun when he flies by it. The “supreme god” Vishnu can often be seen riding on his back. Bhuddist lore lists the Garuda as one of the “Four Dignities”—animals that represent Bhuddist virtues. The Four Dignities are the dragon representing power; the tiger, representing confidence; the snow leopard, representing fearlessness; and the Garuda, representing wisdom. In Hindu lore, Garuda represents heavenly power. On the bright side, he is a symbol of virtue, hope, and rebirth—but he has his dark side too. Garuda is a brilliant warrior, and while it’s true that his enemies, the naga serpents, are agents of the underworld it’s also true that he shows no mercy in his attacks. Therefore, he symbolizes speed, violence, and military prowess as much as he does virtue, hope, and rebirth.


The characteristic of Cynocephaly describes the head of a dog upon a human body. This trait is a theme upon which there are several variations, with representations showing up in several cultures and legends. Tales of human forms with a dog-like head have been told from ancient Egypt, to ancient Greek, medieval, and Christian stories. These tales, eliciting both fear and fascination, are like an ancient form of a monster tale, often invoking the idea that cynocephaly is not just a myth or legend, but an actual race of creatures living here on Earth. The appearance of cynocephaly in stories throughout the ages illustrates the ubiquitous nature of the creatures, and the flexibility of an image that continuously reoccurs with a similar appearance, but varying stories.


The most basic description of cynocephaly is that it is the image of a human figure that has the head of a dog, or, in some instances, a jackal.  This is not to be confused with images of werewolves. Werewolves are a creature where the human forms transforms into a dog-like head and body.  Some believe that werewolves and cynocephalic creatures are somehow related, but they are more likely two separate types of creatures that happen to share some dog-like traits. The name cynocephaly sounds much more like an actual disease than a depiction of an image or a human with a dog head shown in prehistoric drawings and renderings. The name is derived from the Greek language, in which cyno- means dog and –cephaly means a disease or condition of the head. Put together, cynocephaly is a disease or condition where the head is in the form of a dog.


Images depicting cynocephaly date as far back as ancient Egyptian times. Ancient Egyptian gods Hapi and Anubis were both depicted in the cynocephaly form, with a human body and a dog head, or in the case of Anubis, a jackal. These images were depicted standing and wearing clothing, giving the appearance that in spite of the dog head, these gods are, in essence, humans. It is unknown why these figures are depicted with the head of a dog, but their presence in Egyptian drawings certainly spread to later cultures that followed. 

Greek physician Ctesias wrote of a dog-headed figure called Indici in India in the 5 th century BC. Later, the Greek Megasthenes returned from travels to India with tales of a race of cynocephaly living in the mountains of India. This dog-headed race of people would hunt in the mountains while wearing animal skins, and would communicate through barking sounds. Such stories of sub-human creatures would likely invoke many emotions, including fear, fascination, intrigue, and terror.

Cynocephaly continued far beyond ancient Egyptian and Greek times, also appearing in some works of medieval literature. Their existence and origin were questioned in City of God, Book XVI, Chapter 8, written by Augustine of Hippo. The Christians had the story of the "Abominable" who had the face of a dog and lived in a city of cannibals. Once baptized, the doglike features disappeared. The Eastern Orthodox Church viewed Saint Christopher as having the head of a dog, which may have been the result of a misinterpretation of the word Cananeus to say canineus, or canine. Later, German bishop and poet Walter of Speyer wrote of Saint Christopher as a large cynocephalic figure from the Chananeans that barked and consumed human flesh. When the cynocephalic Christopher met Christ, he chose to be baptized, at which point he shed his doglike appearance and began a life devoted to God.  This idea that the figure with a doglike appearance would become fully human upon being baptized and accepting god is a story that repeats, illustrating that to the Christians, the doglike appearance was a negative feature, a punishment of sorts that could only be eliminated by choosing to follow a certain set of religious beliefs.


16th century illustration


Images of cynocephaly continued through medieval culture in a book called Historia gentis Langobardorum, written by Paul the Deacon. Again, the doglike appearance was considered un-Christian as it was applied to the Norse at the court of Charlemagne. The Nowell Codex, which is the script that contains the story of Beowulf, also contained references to the cynocephalic, with portions referring to "healfhundingas" or "half-dogs." The idea spread into Anglo-Saxon England, where outlaws were referred to as wulfes heafod (“wolf’s head”), again giving the impression that the image of a human body with a dog’s head is an inherently negative trait, meant to refer to an outcast of society. Even the tales of King Arthur refer to cynophaly, as King Arthur’s men fight hundreds of the cynophalic creatures, and the stories morph into tales including werewolves.

Finally, cynophaly appears in Chinese legends, as told in the writings called History of the Liang Dynasty. In the writings, Buddhist missionary Hui-Sheng describes an island to the east of Fusang which is inhabited by cynophalic creatures. This island could either be referring to Japan, or America. Historian Li Yanshou also describes a dog kingdom in The History of Northern Dynasties.

The repeated appearance of cynophalic creatures in various ancient writings, legends, and myths represents a very common theme in human history. Such stories have held many purposes, from depicting religious figures, to depicting a lower form of human reserved for those who choose not to follow certain religious teachings. Travelers may have told tales of these creatures in hopes of impressing others, or perhaps they truly believed they saw such beasts. Regardless of the reasons for the use of the images, they invoke images of a mysterious, terrifying, and intriguing being. The use of cynophalic figures in modern story-telling, books, movies, and television shows indicate that this ancient mythological depiction has withstood the test of time.


In Greek mythology, a drakaina (Ancient Greek: δράκαινα) is a female serpent or dragon, sometimes with humanlike features. Examples of the Drakaina included Campe, Delphyne, Echidna and Sybaris. Python slain by Apollo and the earliest representations of Delphyne are shown as simply gigantic serpents, similar to other Greek dragons. However, although the word "drakaina" is literally the feminine form of drakon (ancient Greek) for dragon or serpent) most drakainas had some features of a human woman. Lamia, Campe, Echidna, and many representations of Ceto, Scylla, and Delphyne had the head and torso of a woman. The drakaina was a monster generally slain only by gods or demigods, Zues slew Delphyne and Campe, Apollo slew Python, and Argus Panoptes slew Echidna. Echidna was the mother of a huge brood of monsters, including other dragon-like creatures. According to Hesiod, Echidna gave birth to Cerberus, Orthrus, the Chimera, the Nemean lion, the Sphinx and the Hydra.  (Other ancient authors, such as Hyginus, attribute even more monsters as children of Echidna such as the Caucasian Eagle, the Crommyonian Sow, the Colchian dragon, the Harpies and Scylla.


Meet Long Ma, the 46-ton, 40-foot-tall mechanical dragon that's been roaming the streets of France.

The longma was a fabled winged horse with dragon scales in Chineses mythology, Seeing a longma was an omen of a legendary sage-ruler, particularly one of the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. Longma interconnects traditional Chinese beliefs about dragons and horses. The legend of water-born horses was known in various parts of Turkestan. In Kucha, for instance, when that city was visited by Hsüan-tsang in the seventh century, there was a lake of dragons in front of one of its temples. "The dragons, changing their form, couple with mares. The offspring is a wild species of horse (dragon-horse) difficult to tame and of a fierce nature. The breed of these dragon-horses became docile." This story must have had its origin farther west in Iranian lands, where winged horses were familiar in art and myth. Even the long-legged small-bellied horses of the "Tajik," that is, of the Arabs, were said to have been born of the conjunction of dragons with mares on the shores of the "Western Sea." (Schafer 1963:60)


The werewolf is a mythological animal and the subject of many stories throughout the world—and more than a few nightmares. Werewolves are, according to some legends, people who morph into vicious, powerful wolves. Others are a mutant combination of human and wolf. But all are bloodthirsty beasts who cannot control their lust for killing people and animals. Early Werewolf Legends
It’s unclear exactly when and where the werewolf legend originated. Some scholars believe the werewolf made its debut in The Epic of Gilgamesh, the oldest known Western prose, when Gilgamesh jilted a potential lover because she had turned her previous mate into a wolf.

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Werewolves made another early appearance in Greek Mythology with the Legend of Lycaon. According to the legend, Lycaon, the son of Pelasgus, angered the god Zeus when he served him a meal made from the remains of a sacrificed boy. As punishment, the enraged Zeus turned Lycaon and his sons into wolves.


Werewolves also emerged in early Nordic folklore. The Saga of the Volsungs tells the story of a father and son who discovered wolf pelts that had the power to turn people into wolves for ten days. The father-son duo donned the pelts, transformed into wolves and went on a killing rampage in the forest. Their rampage ended when the father attacked his son, causing a lethal wound. The son only survived because a kind raven gave the father a leaf with healing powers. Many so-called werewolves from centuries ago were in fact serial killers, and France had its fair share. In 1521, Frenchmen Pierre Burgot and Michel Verdun allegedly swore allegiance to the devil and claimed to have an ointment that turned them into wolves. After confessing to brutally murdering several children, they were both burned to death at the stake. (Burning was thought to be one of the few ways to kill a werewolf.)

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Image Above - ArtStation - Werewolf By Chris Scalf - Giles Garnier, known as the “Werewolf of Dole,” was another sixteenth-century Frenchman whose claim to fame was also an ointment with wolf-morphing abilities. According to legend, as a wolf he viciously killed children and ate them. He too was burned to death at the stake for his monstrous crimes.
Whether Burgot, Verdun or Garnier were mentally ill, acted under the influence of a hallucinogenic substance or were simply cold-blooded killers is up for debate. But it likely didn’t matter to superstitious Europeans during the 16th century. To them, such heinous crimes could only be committed by a horrific beast such as the werewolf. Peter Stubbe, a wealthy, fifteenth-century farmer in Bedburg, Germany, may be the most notorious werewolf of them all. According to folklore, he turned into a wolf-like creature at night and devoured many citizens of Bedburg.


Peter was eventually blamed for the gruesome killings after being cornered by hunters who claimed they saw him shape-shift from wolf to human form. He experienced a grisly execution after confessing under torture to savagely killing animals, men, women and children—and eating their remains. He also declared he owned an enchanted belt that gave him the power to transform into a wolf at will. Not surprisingly, the belt was never found. Peter’s guilt is controversial since some people believe he wasn’t a killer but the victim of a political witch hunt—or perhaps a werewolf-hunt. Either way, the circumstances surrounding his life and death stoked rampant fears at the time that werewolves were on the loose. Some legends maintain werewolves shape-shifted at will due to a curse. Others state they transformed with the help of an enchanted sash or a cloak made of wolf pelt. Still others claim people became wolves after being scratched or bit by a werewolf.


In many werewolf stories, a person only turns into a wolf when there’s a full moon—and that theory may not be far-fetched. According to a study conducted at Australia’s Calvary Mater Newcastle hospital, a full moon brings out the “beast” in many humans. The study found that of the 91 violent, acute behavior incidents at the hospital between August 2008 and July 2009, 23 percent happened during a full moon. Patients attacked staff and displayed wolf-like behaviors such as biting, spitting and scratching. Although many were under the influence of drugs or alcohol at the time, it’s unclear why they became intensely violent when the moon was full.


The werewolf phenomenon may have a medical explanation. Take Peter the Wild Boy for instance. In 1725, he was found wandering naked on all fours through a German forest. Many thought he was a werewolf or at least raised by wolves.

Peter ate with his hands and couldn’t speak. He was eventually adopted by the courts of King George I and King George II, and lived out his days as their “pet” in England. Research has shown Peter likely had Pitt Hopkins syndrome,  a condition discovered in 1978 that causes lack of speech, seizures, distinct facial features, difficulty breathing and intellectual challenges.


Other medical conditions that may have encouraged werewolf-mania throughout history are:

lycanthropy (a rare, psychological condition that causes people to believe they’re changing into a wolf or other animal)
food poisoning hypertrichosis (a rare, genetic disorder causing excessive hair growth)
hallucination, possibly caused by hallucinogenic herbs
Throughout the centuries, people have used werewolves and other mythic beasts to explain the unexplainable. In modern times, however, most believe werewolves are nothing more than pop culture horror icons, made famous thanks to Hollywood’s 1941 flick, The Wolf Man.

Still, werewolves have a cult following, werewolf sightings are reported each year, and werewolf legends will likely continue to haunt the dreams of people throughout the world.

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