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Sarah lowers her eyelids fleetingly as she looks slightly to her right avoiding eye contact with John, Sarah shakes her head subtly as she say's softly, "Not like those other goons in there". Sarah moves her head slightly right as she stares into the void in silence. Sarah shakes her head subtly as she blinks once. Sarah is thinking about her life and the impossible situation she is now mixed up with. Sarah blinks rapidly several times as she moves her head slightly and say's, You have a sense of....Sarah hesitates. Sarah is lost for words as she hums under her breath and turns her head slightly left while looking down and away from John.


John widens his arms as he waits patiently for Sarah to finish her sentence, John raises his head slightly at speed as he say's with curiosity, Of what? John is motionless as he looks at Sarah in silence. Sarah hums as she say's with slight tiredness, "Never mind" A light muffling of material is heard as Sarah places her right hand over her chest and slowly slides her head and shoulders down the chair to her right as she rests her head on the chairs flowery cushion. John say's, "No No No" in quick succession as he quickly jerks forward slightly, "Let's talk about it. John rejoins his hands once again. John bends his head steeply to his right as he maintains focus on Sarah.


Sarah is feeling tired as she rests her back and head onto the comfortable pillow, Sarah has her eyes closed but opens them fleetingly as she looks up at the ceiling while moving her head slightly right, Sarah maintains closed eyelids as she speaks over to John and say's, "I came down here to get drunk, I don't have the energy" Sarah breathes in and out at a constant rate as she relaxes her mind and body, John say's "Hey Hey" as he tries to energize Sarah a little.


John moves his head slightly forward as he continues and say's with zeal, "It takes more energy to keep quiet than it does to speak the mind". John moves his head slightly as he speaks, John nods forward quickly as he say's "Go ahead", Raises head up slightly and say's, "Let go of what you got now. John is silent and motionless - No sound score - A quiet breeze can be heard - All is silent


Sarah continues to rests quietly as she looks on over at John, Suddenly Sarah takes in a deep breath of air as she lifts herself up from the comfort of the pillow, (Ruffling of material is heard) Sarah say's with slight scrutiny and importance, "You were sent down here to do a job"


John instantly looks to his right as he closes his eyes and raises his left hand to express his words, John say's with a carefree tone of voice, "My job is to fly the whirlybird, John reopens his eyes as he lowers his hand back down to his glass, John say's in defense as he looks back at Sarah "I've been doing that job just fine."


Sarah continues to speak her mind as she say's with a more awakened state of mind, "You have the protection of this facility, You eat our food, You drink our water. A slight crackling sound is heard as McDermott makes his way down the wooden stairwell, McDermott passes behind Sarah with a bottle of cider in his left hand and a glass that is quarter filled with his right.


Sarah continues, "And you don't lift a finger to help". Bill places the quarter filled glass onto a table (A loud wooden bang sound is heard) The loud bang from the glass causes Sarah to look instantly right and up at McDermott, (Liquid in glass sways from side to side at rapid speed) Sarah becomes sarcastically scornful in a friendly way as she say's "Neither one of you" Sarah is now referring to McDermott who Sarah thinks is an alcoholic and sits around all day. Sarah becomes silent as she looks back at John. (Wind is still heard - No sound score -


Sarah John and McDermott are completely silenced and no one is speaking, McDermott begins to pour Sarah a generous serving of strong cider with his right hand, (A spluttering fizzing and bubbling sound of liquid is heard as Bill fills the glass) (Sarah turns her head at the sound of the cider as she watches the glass slowly fill up) McDermott pulls the bottle away which produces a high pitched chinking as the liquid falls back to the bottom of the bottle, (Plume of bubbles raise from the bottom of glass) Bill places the cider bottle under his left shoulder before removing his right hand, Bill lowers his right hand and retrieves his pipe, tobacco and matches which are contained in a black wallet from the table before retreating back to the top of the stairs. Sarah looks away to her right avoiding eye contact with John in a bemused way as she breathes out slightly and lowers her eyelids before smirking at the crazy situation, Sarah slowly looks back over to the chuckling helicopter pilot who she now considers a shrewd stowaway. John has become amused at Sarah's words and actions as he begins to chuckle at a low level of sound, Hehe, (Louder Hehehe) to Sarah's dismay.


John chuckles some more as he raises his glass high in the air before relaxing back into his seat, Low level thud of material is heard) John relaxes his right arm onto his stomach before relaxing his left hand, Johns fingers touch each hand as he looks on over at Sarah with a contented and cheerful mind set. (John continues to softly chuckle)


Two wooden clunking sounds are heard as McDermott places his right foot onto the step before the top and his left foot onto the top of the wooden stair deck. McDermott quickly sits down as he maintains focus on John and Sarah,  Another light tap is heard as McDermott places his smoking wallet onto the wooden deck with his right hand. Bill has his cider bottle underneath his left arm and is holding his glass with his left hand. Bill turns to his right and looks down as he takes the bottle away from underneath his arm with his right hand and places it down onto the wooden surface at the same time as his glass with his left hand. (Low level clunk is heard) John is still in high spirits as he chuckles with a delirious delight.


The pattern scheme is definitely diamonds as John is also wearing a thick diamond knitted jumper, John looks down as he lifts his left thumb up momentarily, (Fidgets twice with his left hand) John speaks with the chuckle still behind his breath, "We don't believe in what you're doing here, Sarah". John looks back at Sarah.

Sarah lowers her left hand with beverage in hand, (Swallows) Sarah rests her glass on her stomach with both hands, Sarah is silent as she looks at John, Sarah moves her head slightly right as she blinks, John shouts out "Hey" A loud wooden bang sound is heard as John quickly places his glass to the seats edge.


John suddenly bends forward from his seating position as he swings his right hand up and over his glass, John say' with interest, You know what all they keep down here in this cave? (John has a strong Jamaican accent)


John breathes in as he looks down at the large database of records, John widens his arms as he takes hold of the heavy file with both hands, John say's with enthusiasm, "Man" they got the books (John lifts the database up and places it onto his lap as he holds it from underneath,) ( and the records of the top (John suddenly taps his left index finger onto the books surface and looks back to Sarah) (Loud thud is heard) 500 companies."Scuffling of paper is heard)


John looks back down at the file as he places his left index finger onto a segment of interesting information and say's, "They got the defense department budget down here" John is impressed with the book as he rubs his chin several times with his left thumb. John looks back to Sarah as he say's, (John softly taps the file several times in quick succession as he expresses his words) "And they got the negative (Stops tapping) for all your favorite movies" (Takes a quick and deep breath of air) Looks back down - Taps book - They got microfilm (Lowers left hand) with tax return - Slides right hand closer to the edge of book - (Removes right hand and holds it just below his chin) John continues, "And newspaper stories"


Microfilm is an analog storage medium using film reels which are exposed and developed into photographic records using a photographic process. It is typically used to store paper documents such as periodicals, legal documents, books and engineering drawings. It is compact in nature, is low cost to produce and store and requires far smaller storage space than paper documents. Therefore, it is considered to be a good archival form.

Viewing microfilm requires microfilm readers, which are simple devices consisting of a light source and magnification. Microfilm can be converted into an electronic format so as to be computer accessible. There are different types of microfilm, such as silver gelatin film, vesicular film and diazo film. Silver gelatin film is used for records which need to be kept permanently or for high-quality images. Vesicular film and diazo film are highly sensitive to high humidity or temperature. Microfilm is considered best for records which are accessed less frequently, but are still necessary to retain.

There are many advantages associated with the use of microfilm. Compared to traditional film, it is much stronger and more reliable. Less breakage is associated with microfilm. It is considered a good standardized image storage medium and is used for long-term storage needs. Cost of maintenance is lower than digital images, and microfilm meets recognized archival standards. Today, digital document storage is generally preferred over microfilm, as the stored contents are more accessible and distributable and are immune to any physical damage.


McDermott is still sat on top of the stairs as he places his smoking pipe into his mouth with his right hand, McDermott looks down to his left as he fumbles with his left hand before looking back over at John, John continues, "They got immigration records, and census reports,"

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Before the zombie apocalypse - Average Income in the USA by Family and Household

Why Incomes Haven't Recovered From the Great Recession

A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. This term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common censuses include traditional culture, business, supplies, and traffic censuses.


If safe havens do exist in other areas of the United states signs in shops will be an important part of every day life, If a zombie horde broke through barriers and defenses the citizens would have no choice but to fight to the death.


Max Brooks a leading scientist and philosophizer predicted a zombie apocalypse which spurred him to write this amazing book called "ZOMBIE SURVIVAL GUIDE" This in depth collection of procedures ideas and general common sense will help you survive a few more days weeks or even months. Fortunately the zombie above did not choose this book for his lunch which now a lucky survivor will hopefully locate.


John looks on over at Sarah with a serious facial expression as he shakes his right index finger in the air and say's,  And they got official accounts of all the wars and plane crashes... John takes in a deep breath as he raises his eyebrows and say's, and volcano eruptions (Moves head down slightly) and earthquakes and fires and floods...


John trails his right hand right as he sticks his index finger up and say's, "and all the other (John leans his head forward slightly) disasters  (John opens his right hand) that interrupted the flow of things...


John lowers his right hand as he say's, "In the good old U.S Of A" John in silent as he looks over at Sarah momentarily,  A loud thudding sound of paper is heard as John suddenly drops the book back down to the table in front of him. John slaps his left hand over his right as he say's, "Now what does it matter, Sarah darling?"


Sarah is silent and motionless as she listens to John, Sarah fleetingly veers her eyes down then back up again, John continues, "All this filing and record keeping?"


John quickly widens his hands to either side as he say's, We ever gonna give a shit? John suddenly looks up and to his right as he focuses his attention onto McDermott.


McDermott looks down fleetingly as his body jerks from striking a match from the floor below, A huge flame emits from the match as he holds it up with his right hand while looking back over to John, (McDermott is listening attentively) (Wind continues to howl) John say's, "We ain't even gonna get a chance to see it all?" All is quiet as Bill raises the burning flame to his pipe and inhales,


John holds his hands tightly together as he looks up at the ceiling in silence and contemplation, Suddenly John speaks loudly while his head shifts from left to right slightly,  "This is a great big 14 mile... John shouts at the top of his voice which causes his voice to echo around the chamber "Tombstone!" John looks even more to his right fleetingly as he expresses his words. Tombstone  - Tombstone - Johns words are carried far and wide from the powerful echo,


Sarah is still silent and motionless as her eyes veer to her left - The sound of a wailing female zombie is heard as John's voice penetrates the chamber and beyond, (The wind continues to blow softly) John continues as he refers to the book, "With an epitaph on it that nobody gonna bother to read. Sarah looks sad as she listens to John, Sarah veers her eyes right and down and maintains her stare of quietude as she contemplates her life. Sarah looks back to John. Epitaph means: a phrase or form of words written in memory of a person who has died, especially as an inscription on a tombstone.


John fleetingly widens his arms out before pointing his right hand towards Sarah, John is now on the attack and is trying to persuade Sarah that her participation inside the bunker will lead to failure and disappointment, John has other ideas and is hatching a scheme to escape when the optimum time comes. John say's, Now, here you come... here you come with a whole new set of charts and records. John widens his arms again as he say's, "What you gonna do?" John looks down as he widens his hands out again and say's, Bury them down here (John looks back to Sarah as he widens his hands out again) with all the other relics (Speaks slightly slower) of what once was?.


Sarah closes her eyes fleetingly as she listens to John, Sarah moves her head slightly down as she maintains closed eyelids, Sarah reopens her eyes but continues to avoid eye contact with (Flyboy), John continues, Let me tell you what else, Yeah, I'm gonna tell you what else.


John points his left index finger directly at Sarah as he waves it once over to her and say's, "You ain't never gonna figure it out," John lowers his hand and places it over his right hand and say's, "Just like they (Shakes head slightly) never figured out..." John looks up at the ceiling as he say's, Why the stars (Looks back to Sarah) are where they're at. The sound score has returned - Slow tempo Violins produce a middle toned chord that changes frequently.


If mankind could teach a Zombie to carry out simple tasks they could potentially be very advantageous and sought after by the numerous space and scientific agencies. Sending a zombie to Venus with a camera attached to it's head might produce some spectacular results. As the Zombie is dead it does not need air food or water, It may survive for many hours on the surface of Venus before succuming to incredible pressures and heat. Sulphur dioxide, nitrogen, carbon dioxide and volcanic eruptions would pose no problems for something that is already dead. Venus with a mean surface temperature of 735 K (462 °C; 863 °F) is rather toasty and the zombie would have to wear a heat and pressure resistant suit, The pressure of Venus is 92 times that of earth or roughly the pressure found 900 m (3,000 ft) underwater on Earth. There are a tremendous amount of zones on Venus scientists are very interested in and each zombie could be dropped off by rocket to each destination. Wind speeds might pose a problem in the middle layer, the winds can reach speeds of more than 700 km/hour.


The camera will need to contain aluminum but the outer layer should be tungsten, Of all metals in pure form, tungsten has the highest melting point (3422 °C, 6192 °F), lowest vapor pressure (at temperatures above 1650 °C, 3000 °F), and the highest tensile strength. Maybe build a safe house on Venus made from tungsten that protects it's occupants from pressure and heat. Technology is probably advanced enough to make a craft that, in a perfect scenario, could function fine on Venus for a fairly long time, maybe even as long as the Mars rovers. But there are always kinks to be worked out, and I doubt that we could reasonably expect anything as long-lasting as the Mars rovers for a while.


As surprising as it may seem, the upper atmosphere of Venus is the most Earth-like location in the solar system. Between altitudes of 50km and 60km, the pressure and temperature can be compared to regions of the Earth’s lower atmosphere. The atmospheric pressure in the Venusian atmosphere at 55km is about half that of the pressure at sea level on Earth. In fact you would be fine without a pressure suit, as this is roughly equivalent to the air pressure you would encounter at the summit of Mount Kilimanjaro. Nor would you need to insulate yourself as the temperature here ranges between 20°C and 30°C. Zombies could be stored above the Venusian planet and dropped down when required, Using an airship could be the answer and the zombies could be treated to dead humans who have consented to be used for scientific purposes - (Donating your body for scientific research) Clearly describing what happens to a body once it has been donated is a little too much for here, you may be eating your lunch! In short, a donor may be studied by medical students to learn about the body as they cut it open and examine it, tracing nerves and arteries. Or the donor may be used by a range of experts such as surgeons, cardiologists, radiologists or paramedics to develop and practice their skills. This may be in becoming better at performing an operation or it may be in developing a new procedure or treatment.

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Image Right - Artist impression depicting winds from a red giant star impacting a neutron star to create prolonged X-ray emission. Such a system is rare: no more than ten are currently known. One was detected “switching on” in X-rays in August 2017, by ESA’s Integral satellite. Credit: ESA

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Image above - Could a floating city above Venus be the future for space exploration. The concept mission to Venus known as Havoc, which stands for High Altitude Venus Operational Concept, involved building a floating city of zeppelins hovering in the planet's atmosphere while being manned by astronauts.


Sarah looks up and directly at John as John continues, "It ain't mankind's job to figure that stuff out." Sarah blinks twice before moving her head slightly right, Sarah is silent -

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John waves his left hand out slightly towards Sarah as he say's, "So what you're doing, (Joins hands together) is a waste of time, Sarah. Moves head slightly right. John continues, "And time is all we got left, you know." (Lifts right thumb fleetingly) High pitched synthesizer melody is heard.


Sarah is silent as she blinks several times, Sarah say's as she defends herself, What I'm doing...Sarah hesitates for four seconds - Blinks twice - "is all there's left to do." Flyboy replies and say's, "Shame on you"


Flyboy continues with enthusiasm and confidence as he say's, "There's plenty to do" Flyboy widens his arms out and shakes them momentarily as he expresses his words and say's again, "Plenty to do" Flyboy hesitates - Flyboy opens his hands wide once more as he shakes them out and looks down saying, So long as there's you and me (looks back at Sarah) and maybe some other people. Looks down and shakes his hands out again, We could (Looks back to Sarah) start over, Strikes his hands out again and say's, "Start fresh"


John leans over as he curls he outstretches his arms then curls them in to express that he is holding a baby. John say's as he looks at Sarah, "Get some babies." John brings his hands in slightly as he say's, "And teach them Sarah, Flyboy hesitates -


Flyboy holds his hands close to his chest  as he strikes down in a rhythmic motion each time he speaks a word, John say's, "Teach them never to come over here (Looks back to Sarah) Strikes down with his right hand - "and dig these records out" John looks at Sarah in silence.


Synthesized female wailing voice is heard - Sarah looks at John in silence for a few seconds before closing her eyes fleetingly in a tired and bewildered kind of way, Sarah turns her head slightly right as she avoids eye contact with John. Sarah stares into the void for a few seconds before shifting her eyes back to Flyboy from his soft word "Hey"

John is serious as he say's, "You want to put some kind of (Hesitates) explanation (Hesitates) down here before you leave?. (High pitched synthesizer key is heard)


McDermott has been listening to John and Sarah the whole time and has not said a word or made a sound, John stares over at Flyboy and Sarah as he raises a glass of spirits to his mouth with his right hand. John begins to speak as McDermott begins to drink from the glass, John say's with a rather scary and frightening tone of voice, "Here's one as good as any you're likely to find." McDermott lowers his glass from his mouth as he looks down and closes his eyes momentarily, Bill opens his eyes and looks to his right before blinking and looking back over at John.


John is silent and motionless as he looks on over at Sarah with a serious facial expression, Suddenly John say's, "We're being punished by the creator" John continues his death stare as he hesitates - John say's with zeal, "He visited a curse on us..." John lengthens the word Us as he extends the S becoming almost like a hissing snake in vocabulary.


Synthesized Owl hoot is heard - Synthesized heavy rainfall is heard - Sarah veers her eyes slightly right avoiding eye contact with John, John say's, "So we might get a look at"


John hesitates - Synthesized sounds of a moaning female is heard - Owl Hoot - Screaming high pitched female effect - John moves his head slightly from side to side as he builds up to speaking his mind, Flyboy moves his bottom jaw from side to side subtly, Flyboy speaks with an inbuilt passion and believability - "What hell was like" John stares at Sarah in silence. Wind and heavy falling rain is heard- Moaning male voice is heard - High pitched screaming female screaming sound is heard - High level synthesized high notes are heard - John is silent momentarily as he veers his eyes left and down slightly,. John snaps out of his trance state as he looks back to Sarah and say's, "Maybe didn't want to see us (Shakes left hand out fleetingly) Hesitates - blow ourselves up... Look up at ceiling and say's, "And put a big (Looks back to Sarah( - hole in his sky." John stares at Sarah in quietude. Veers eyes down and slightly away from Sarah and say's, "Maybe he just (Looks back at Sarah) wanted to show us he was still the boss man." (Violins play to provide the sound score) John looks into the void avoiding eye contact once again, Hesitates - Looks back to Sarah and say's, "Maybe he figure,,, we was getting too big for our bridges. Hesitates - "Trying to figure his shit out."

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Sarah raises her glass of cider to her mouth as she looks looks down and away from John, Sarah blinks once before raising the glass and drinking some of the alcoholic beverage, Sarah looks to her right slightly as she takes a small sip then lowers her glass as she looks back at John. As she lowers her glass she twists it anticlockwise a quarter turn as her fingers push around the glasses edge. Sarah looks back down again then back to John. Sarah closes her eyes slightly as she turns her head right,


Sarah stayed with John and McDermott overnight as it was safer than going back to her breeze block fabricated rest room, A new day has arrived and Sarah is working in her small laboratory. A rumbling sound is heard infused with a frequent and time controlled clicking that is continuous,  A small centrifuge is in motion, (Top view of rotating centrifuge)

A laboratory centrifuge is a piece of equipment driven  by a motor, which spins liquid samples at high speed. There are various types of centrifuges, depending on the size and the sample capacity. Like all other centrifuges, laboratory centrifuges work by the sedimentation principle, where the centripetal acceleration is used to separate substances of greater and lesser density. There are various types of centrifugation:
Differential centrifugation,  often used to separate certain organelles from whole cells for further analysis of specific parts of cells.
Isopycnic centrifugation, often used to isolate nucleic acids such as DNA.
Sucrose gradient centrifugation, often used to purify enveloped viruses and ribosomes, and also to separate cell organelles from crude cellular extracts.



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Image Above - Clinical centrifuges
(moderate-speed devices used for clinical applications like blood collection tubes)


There are different types of laboratory centrifuges:

(devices for small tubes from 0.2 ml to 2.0 ml (micro tubes), up to 96 well-plates, compact design, small footprint; up to 30,000 g)


Image Above - MC-12 High Speed Micro centrifuge

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Image Above - Multipurpose high-speed centrifuges (devices for a broad range of tube sizes, high variability, big footprint)

Neuation i Fuge L30P BenchTop Multi Purpose Laboratory Centrifuge , 4500 rpm / g varies as per rotor, Rotors (not included)

Image Above - Beckman Optima L-100K Ultracentrifuge - Certified and Warranty.

Ultracentrifuges (analytical and preparative models)
Because of the heat generated by air friction (even in ultracentrifuges, where the rotor operates in a good vacuum), and the frequent necessity of maintaining samples at a given temperature, many types of laboratory centrifuges are refrigerated and temperature regulated.


Centrifuge tubes are precision-made, high-strength tubes of glass or plastic made to fit exactly in rotor cavities. They may vary in capacity from 50 mL down to much smaller capacities used in microcentrifuges used extensively in molecular biology laboratories. Microcentrifuges typically accommodate disposable plastic microcentrifuge tubes with capacities from 250 μL to 2.0 mL. Glass centrifuge tubes can be used with most solvents, but tend to be more expensive. They can be cleaned like other laboratory glassware, and can be sterilized by autoclaving. (An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to carry out industrial and scientific processes requiring elevated temperature and pressure different from ambient air pressure.)
Small scratches from careless handling can cause failure under the strong forces imposed during a run. Glass tubes are inserted into soft rubber sleeves to cushion them during runs. Plastic centrifuge tubes, especially tend to be less expensive and, with care, can be just as durable as glass. Water is preferred when plastic centrifuge tubes are used. They are more difficult to clean thoroughly, and are usually inexpensive enough to be considered disposable.

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An autoclave is a pressure chamber used to carry out industrial and scientific processes requiring elevated temperature and pressure different from ambient air pressure. Autoclaves are used in medical applications to perform sterilization and in the chemical industry to cure coatings and vulcanize rubber and for hydrothermal synthesis. Industrial autoclaves are used in industrial applications, especially regarding composites. Many autoclaves are used to sterilize equipment and supplies by subjecting them to pressurized saturated steam  at 121 °C (249 °F) for around 15–20 minutes depending on the size of the load and the contents. The autoclave was invented by Charles Chamberland in 1884, although a precurser known as the steam digester was created by Denis Papin in 1679. The name comes from Greek auto-, ultimately meaning self, and Latin clavis meaning key, thus a self-locking device.

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Image Left - Charles Chamberland (12 March 1851 – 2 May 1908) was a French microbiologist from Chilly-le-Vignoble in the department of Jura who worked with Louis Pasteur. In 1884 he developed a type of filtration known today as the Chamberland filter or Chamberland-Pasteur filter, a device that made use of an unglazed porcelain bar. The filter had pores that were smaller than bacteria, thus making it possible to pass a solution containing bacteria through the filter, and having the bacteria completely removed from the solution. Chamberland was also credited for starting a research project that led to the invention of the autoclave device in 1879. He worked with Pasteur and came up, by chance, with a vaccine for Chicken Cholera. He went away on holiday, forgetting to inject the disease into some chickens as he had been told. When he came back he saw the jar of bacteria sitting on the side and thought he would inject it into the chickens anyway. To his amazement they did not die. He reported this to Pasteur, who told him to inject a fresh form into the chickens. He went on to inject the fresh form into the same chickens, and they didn't die. He had found a vaccine. They had also discovered that a weakened form of a disease could act as a vaccine.


Disposable plastic "microlitre tubes" of 0.5ml to 2ml are commonly used in microcentrifuges. They are molded from a flexible transparent plastic similar to polythene, are semi-conical in shape, with integral, hinged sealing caps. Larger samples are spun using centrifuge bottles, which range in capacity from 250 to 1000 millilitres. Although some are made of heavy glass, centrifuge bottles are usually made of shatterproof plastics such as polypropylene or polycarbonate. Sealing closures may be used for added leak-proof assurance. The load in a laboratory centrifuge must be carefully balanced. This is achieved by using a combination of samples and balance tubes which all have the same weight or by using various balancing patterns without balance tubes. Small differences in mass of the load can result in a large force imbalance when the rotor is at high speed. This force imbalance strains the spindle and may result in damage to the centrifuge or personal injury. Some centrifuges have an automatic rotor imbalance detection feature that immediately discontinues the run when an imbalance is detected. Before starting a centrifuge, an accurate check of the rotor and lid locking mechanisms is mandatory. A spinning rotor can cause serious injury if touched. Modern centrifuges generally have features that prevent accidental contact with a moving rotor as the main lid is locked during the run.



Centrifuges are to be operated by professionally trained people who are authorized to use the equipment, Purdue campus laboratory was seriously damaged when the rotor of an ultracentrifuge failed while in use. Flying metal fragments damaged walls, the ceiling and other equipment. The shock wave blew out the laboratory's windows and shook down shelves. On December 16, 1998, milk samples were running in a Beckman.L2-65B ultracentrifuge using a large aluminum rotor (a rotor is a large metal object that holds the individual sample tubes and is connected to the spin drive of the centrifuge). The rotor had been used for this procedure many times before. Approximately one hour into the operation, the rotor failed due to excessive mechanical stress caused by the "G" forces of the high rotation speed. The subsequent explosion completely destroyed the centrifuge

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Centrifuge rotors have tremendous kinetic energy during high speed rotation. Rotor failure, caused by mechanical stress from the high forces imparted by the motor, can occur due to manufacturing defects, routine wear and tear, or improper use and maintenance. Such a failure can be catastrophic failure, especially with larger centrifuges, and generally results in total destruction of the centrifuge. While centrifuges generally have safety shielding to contain these failures, such shielding may be inadequate, especially in older models, or the entire centrifuge unit may be propelled from its position, resulting in damage to nearby personnel and equipment. Uncontained rotor failures have shattered laboratory windows and destroyed refrigerators and cabinetry. To reduce the risk of rotor failures, centrifuge manufactures specify operating and maintenance procedures to ensure that rotors are regularly inspected and removed from service or derated (only operated at lower speeds) when they are past their expected lifetime.

The University of Hawaii faces a total $115,500 fine for 15 workplace safety violations after a laboratory explosion in March 2016 on the university’s Manoa campus. Postdoctoral researcher Thea Ekins-Coward, who worked for the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, lost one of her arms in the explosion.

Ekins-Coward was preparing a gas mixture of 55% hydrogen, 38% oxygen, and 7% carbon dioxide when an electrostatic discharge likely ignited the mixture, according to an investigation report issued in July by the University of California Center for Laboratory Safety. The gas mixture was to be used to feed bacteria to produce biofuels and bioplastics. The gases were combined in a 49-L steel tank designed for compressed air and not electrically grounded.


Another potential hazard is the aerosolization of hazardous samples during centrifugation. To prevent contamination of the laboratory, rotor lids with special aerosol-tight gaskets are available. The rotor can be loaded with the samples within a hood and the rotor lid fixed on the rotor. Afterwards, the aerosol-tight system of rotor and lid is transferred to the centrifuge. The rotor can then be fixed within the centrifuge without opening the lid. After the run, the entire rotor assembly, including the lid, is removed from the centrifuge to the hood for further steps, maintaining the samples within a closed system.

A separation process is a method that converts a mixture or solution of chemical substances into two or more distinct product mixtures. At least one of results of the separation is enriched in one or more of the source mixture's constituents. In some cases, a separation may fully divide the mixture into pure constituents. Separations exploit differences in chemical properties or physical properties (such as size, shape, mass, density, or chemical affinity) between the constituents of a mixture.


A high pinging sound of laboratory grade glass is heard as a series of test tubes vibrate from the centrifuges motion, This vibration causes the tubes to lightly touch each other creating the sound. The tubes lightly move left to right in a continuous motion, Five tubes each have a sample of blood that was taken from survivors and soldiers as they became infected, The blood is very useful to determine how blood cells react and to isolate the virus that turns people into zombies.


Sarah is busy at work in her determination to discover a cure for the apocalypse, Sarah draws a small circle around the core of a brain with a red ink pen. Sarah is using an X ray scan developed to film and has been placed onto an X ray viewer for investigation. A squeaking sound is heard as Sarah slowly draws the circle.

X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of high-energy electromagnetic radiation. Most X-rays have a wavelength ranging from 0.01 to 10 nanometers, corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 petahertz to 30 exahertz (3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz) and energies in the range 100 eV to 100 keV. X-ray wavelengths are shorter than those of UV rays and typically longer than those of Gamma rays. In many languages, X-radiation is referred to as Röntgen radiation, after the German scientist Wilhelm Rontgen, who discovered  it on November 8, 1895. He named it X-radiation to signify an unknown type of radiation.


Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen 27 March 1845 – 10 February 1923) was a German mechanical engineer and physicist. In 1901, Röntgen was awarded the first Nobel Prize in Physics. The award was officially "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the remarkable rays subsequently named after him". Nearly two weeks after his discovery, he took the very first picture - a ((radiograph)) - using X-rays of his wife Anna Bertha's hand. When she saw her skeleton she exclaimed "I have seen my death!" He later made a better picture of his friend Albert von Kollikers hand at a public lecture. Roentgen was exploring the path of electrical rays passing from an induction coil through a partially evacuated glass tube. Although the tube was covered in black paper and the room was completely dark, he noticed that a screen covered in fluorescent material was illuminated by the rays. He later realised that a number of objects could be penetrated by these rays, and that the projected image of his own hand showed a contrast between the opaque bones and the translucent flesh. He later used a photographic plate instead of a screen, and an image was captured. In this way an extraordinary discovery had been made: that the internal structures of the body could be made visible without the necessity of surgery.


Sarah slowly lifts her head back up from the X ray reader as she places her right hand to her right side temple, Sarah is showing signs of a headache once again and this is now becoming a frequent occurrence, Sarah is stressed and completely overworked as she tries her upmost best to develop a cure. Sarah is silent as she rubs her temple slowly with a circular clockwise motion.


Suddenly Sarah opens her eyes and looks on over at the spinning centrifuge, (Sarah's nostrils expand fleetingly) (Sarah moves her mouth slightly)  Sarah continues to look at the scientific equipment in contemplation.


A loud popping sound is heard as Sarah rapidly places the red ink pen down to the tables surface, Sarah slides a black microscope several inches towards the edge of the table with both hands, Sarah places her right hand under the spinning centrifuge and clicks the machine to off. (Loud metallic click sound is heard) (Squeak sound is heard) Sarah raises her right hand at speed and places it onto the side of the spinning centrifuge which has a striking resemblance to a UFO. A hissing steam sound is heard for a few seconds before the spinning disc comes to a halt. (Centrifuge spins in a clockwise motion) Sarah relaxes back in her chair as a squeak sound is produced) (Sarah sighs as she raises her head up slightly) Other equipment inside Sarah's laboratory can be seen on the far right of the image, This device could be a Digestion apparatus. A series of 10 culture tubes are visible to Sarah's right, These colorful tubes contain separated substances that have been produced by the centrifuge.


From outside in the corridor there is no one around, Sarah has decided that her headache requires some more aspirin, Sarah slowly stands from her chair as she rests her right hand onto the surface of her work table momentarily,


Sarah quickly makes her way over to the exit door, Sarah grabs the handle with her right hand and twists before pulling open at high speed, (Door produces a metallic rubbing sound) Sarah steps out into the corridor as she maintains her grip on the door for a fleeting moment.


Sarah turns the corner and immediately begins to walk down the corridor towards the first aid box that is attached to the wall. Sarah walks at a fairly fast pace (Tapping of feet is heard) as she walks at an angle towards the right side wall, In her eagerness to reduce her head pain Sarah touches the wall with her right hand briefly,


The door to Sarah's laboratory suddenly slams shut (Loud crashing banging sound is heard) Sarah takes a few more steps forward before slapping the wall with her right hand once only, As Sarah nears the first aid box she touches the wall a further two times as a method to turn her mind and thoughts to something else.


Sarah opens the cabinet with her left hand as she looks for some medication with her right.


Sarah closes the box shut (Light thud sound is heard) Sarah turns as she looks down at the packaging, Sarah makes her way over to the water fountain once again as she discards the plastic outer material with her left hand onto the floor.


Sarah quickly places the pills into her mouth with her right hand,


Sarah places both hands onto the water fountain as she bends down to drink some water, Sarah takes a mouthful of cool fresh water as she raises her head back up, (Running trickling water sound is heard as the water fountain stops and the waste water is returned to the drain below)


Sarah bends her head completely back as she finishes swallowing the pills, Sarah bends her head back down slightly in silence.


A loud banging sound is heard from a distance including loud growling and moaning from a captive zombie specimen, Dr Foster is suddenly heard shouting very loudly, "You son of a bitch!" Sarah turns her head towards the commotion as she tries to comprehend the disturbance.


A male zombie specimen that had been caught earlier in the corrall underground cave is not in the best of moods, The zombie is lifting up a silver surgical autopsy table with both hands as it displays hostility towards Dr Foster and it's unwanted captivity, Zombie lifts the table twice and slams it down creating a loud thud sound -Dr Foster approaches the table with caution as he places a circular silver food tray down onto the table, Dr Foster steps back - 


Zombie swings it's right hand outwards as it smashes the silver food tray from off of the table, ( A clunking of metal is heard as the food offering flies out of the bowl and all over the floor) Dr Foster turns to face the bowl that has gone south at high speed, Dr Foster is attempting to feed the irate zombie but the zombie is having none of it.


The noise and commotion has now brought the attention of Sarah who quickly steps away from the fountain and towards the room the zombie is located. Dr Foster shouts "Damn It" as he tries his best to cool the zombies aggression.


A lot of growling and banging is heard from the irate zombie as Sarah nears the glass of the door which reveals Dr Fosters surgery. Sarah is solemn and slightly sad as she watches the rotten corpse flail its arms and gyrate it's rotten limbs.


Sarah has decided to disturb Dr Foster as she slowly pushes open the door with her right hand. Dr Foster turns away from the zombie and begins to walk slowly forward towards Sarah, As he passes a small silver table that has a skull and a folder of medical notes he quickly throws a tender piece of steak at the table in anger and defeat. A loud splat sound is heard as the meat hits the table. Zombie growls, Dr Fisher say's with annoyance "It's No Good" as he admits to himself the cow meat is inadequate for a human flesh eating parasite. Dr Fisher looks from side to side as he continues to walk across the room. Dr Fisher hesitates then say's "It's no Fucking Good" as he turns around to face the silver table that has a skull on top. Several pieces of medical and scientific electronic equipment can be seen on top of a long bench as Sarah looks down at the sensitive equipment.


The zombie has become subdued and is quiet, Sarah is intrigued with Dr Fisher's room as she continues to investigate Dr Fishers equipment and progress. Dr Fisher turns away from Sarah as he puts his hands in his pockets. Sarah say's with a calm tone of voice, "What is that stuff" She is referring to the meat offering Dr Fisher tried to get the zombie to consume.


Dr Fisher suddenly turns and faces Sarah as he explains the food substance to Sarah. Sarah picks up an open metal tin from the table's surface with her right hand as she looks down and inside the open space of the tin with intrigue.


Dr Fisher raises his right hand momentarily as he emphasizes his reply and say's, It's something called beef treats, which the army provides us with so generously. Dr Fisher looks back at his dead specimen with disappointment and does not seem to be making as a good a progress as Dr Frankenstein is at this moment.


A large Circ O Therm is resting against the back wall and is an Autoclave.


Dr Fisher raises his left arm momentarily as he say's "He wont touch it" referring to the zombies lackluster appetite with human foods.


Sarah takes a quick sniff of the armies tinned meat before quickly pulling the tin away from her nostrils, Sarah say's with disgust and slightly dry humor, "Shit, I wouldn't either. The meat is having an unpleasant odor on Sarah. A light tap is heard as Sarah replaces the tin to the table and looks back to Dr Fisher.


Dr Fisher rapidly turns to face Sarah from her words and say's with sarcasm, Sorry, We're fresh out of filet mignon.

Filet mignon is a steak cut of beef taken from the smaller end of the tenderloin, or psoas major of the cow carcass, usually a steer or heifer. In French, this cut is always called filet de bœuf ("beef fillet"), as filet mignon refers to pork tenderloin. The tenderloin runs along both sides of the spine, and is usually harvested as two long snake-shaped cuts of beef. The tenderloin is sometimes sold whole. When sliced along the short dimension, creating roughly round cuts, and tube cuts, the cuts (fillets) from the small forward end are considered to be filet mignon. Those from the center are tournedos: however, some butchers in the United States label all types of tenderloin steaks "filet mignon". In fact, the shape of the true filet mignon may be a hindrance when cooking, so most restaurants sell steaks from the wider end of the tenderloin – it is both cheaper and much more presentable. The tenderloin is the most tender cut of beef, making it one of the more desirable cuts. This, combined with the small amount given by any one steer or heifer (no more than 500 grams), filet mignon is, as a result, generally the most expensive cut. Because the muscle is not weight-bearing, it contains less connective tissue, which makes it tender. However, it is generally not as flavorful as some other cuts of beef (e.g. primal rib cuts). For this reason it is often wrapped in bacon to enhance flavor, and/or served with a sauce.

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Organic Grass Fed Mignon.


Sarah looks at Dr Fisher for a simple second as she sighs deeply before looking over at the chained up zombie who has now begun to make a much louder noise of whines and groans. As Sarah watches the Zombie pulling on it's chains she contemplates her thoughts and say's "What is this " as she tries to understand Dr Logan's harsh and experimental methods.


The captive zombie is facing away from Sarah as it pulls violently on it's chains with both hands, Zombie whines with frustration, Sarah continues, Part of Logan's plan to try and socialize these things?. Zombie turns and looks on over at Sarah and Dr Fisher in silence once more as it tries to understand the words from Sarah's mouth. (Chain chinks as zombie continues to pull and stare at Sarah -


Zombie let's out a low pitched growl once again.


Dr Fisher is solemn and silent as he rests his right shoulder on the large autoclave equipment. Dr Fisher continues to look on over at the undead for a few moments more before turning his head towards Sarah as she continues to talk. Sarah say's as she refers to Dr Frankenstein, "He told me himself they don't eat for nourishment,


From a distance a loud click is heard as the surgery door is opened from the outside, Sarah shakes her head with a feeling of dissolution as she say's, "What are we hoping for here?" Suddenly an enthusiastic voice from Dr Frankenstein emanates inside the room, Sarah does not immediately turn to the voice but continues to look at Dr Fisher for a few moments longer. Dr Logan has now returned to his zombie specimen and has heard Sarah's last words and replies, "Hoping to satisfy the urge"


Dr Logan stands motionless on his feet as he continues, You see, Sarah, they're, (Zombie growls which causes Dr Logan to turn his head towards the undead.


Dr Logan raises his right hand and protrudes pinky and index fingers towards the zombie, Dr Logan is full of energy as he steps away from his position and towards the growling zombie as he invigoratingly explains his theories to Sarah and Dr Fisher. "They are us" Dr Logan say's with enthusiasm as he shakes his hand several times to emphasize his strong views.


Dr Logan continues as he rapidly walks on over to his specimen, Light tapping of feet is heard from the crazy Dr. "They are the extensions of us". The captive zombie suddenly raises both of it's arms outwards and snaps violently forward as its attempts to attack Dr Logan, "Zombie growls loudly with evil intentions."


Dr Fisher sways from side to side softly as he looks on over at Dr Logan and the now much more irate zombie. Dr Logan continues. They are the same animal,


Sarah is silent as she continues to look at Dr Fisher for a few solitary moments before looking over towards Dr Logan, Sarah sits down slowly onto a chair that is conveniently resting against the scientific workbench as she has to listen and respect Dr Logan for his advanced knowledge and progress. Dr Logan continues as the zombie growls loudly, "They are the same animal, simply functioning less perfectly.


Dr Logan fleetingly turns to face Sarah as he points his left index finger over at her and say's "They can be fooled, don't you see?. Zombie raises both hands up as it attempts to lunge forward towards Frankenstein (Zombie growls loudly with hunger pains)


Zombies hands move up and down just inches form Dr Logan's face as he continues his explanation and say's, They can be tricked into being good little girls and boys. Zombie growls.


Logan continues as he ponders his child hood years, "The same way we were tricked into it on the promise of some reward to come. Zombie growls scuffling sounds are produced from the rotten corpse.


Zombie growls and places it's right hand to it's rotten neck, Dr Logan smiles broadly as a sudden rush of happiness and utter urge takes over his mind. Logan swiftly turns to face Sarah and Fisher as he say's over to them "They have to be rewarded." Logan raises his right index finger up high briefly as he say's "Reward is the key", I'm convinced of that now. A loud wooden bang sound is produced when the zombie pulls hard on his chain with his left hand, Logan turns to face the zombie from the odd sound, A sudden urgent thought sweeps into Frankenstein's mind as he raises his right index finger again and say's as he steps away from his position with eagerness, Come, Ive got something to show you.


Zombie let's out another painful growl as Dr Logan rapidly walks across the floor of the surgical facility, Dr Fisher is none to impressed with Dr Logan's progress as he watches him silently and in some kind of thought.


Sarah is relaxed but will now have to follow Frankenstein as he attempts to persuade the rest of the scientific team that his methods are working.


Sarah look on over towards Dr Fisher with a strange facial and eye expression that say's "Oh dear whats next" Sarah knows that Frankenstein uses old fashioned and quite bizarre medical procedures to progress his understanding. Sarah slowly looks down as she pushes up from her chair with both hands.


Sarah calmly walks away from the scientific bench as she follows Dr Logan and Fisher into another room. Zombie growls loudly once again. Sarah is relaxed but will now have to follow Frankenstein as he attempts to persuade the rest of the scientific team that his methods are working.


A light tapping of feet is heard from Sarah, The captive zombie is very unpredictable and is now much worse for ware as the three medical officers leave the room. The zombie now wants to make a commotion as it suddenly looks down at thw silver autopsy table in front of it.


Without further hesitation the zombie grabs the table with both hands as it growls wildly with evil frustrations. Zombie growls loudly as it tosses the table over and across the floor, The zombies hands flail high as it lifts it's right leg up from the forces required.


The large silver wheels of the table spin frantically from the forces with the top tier of wheels completing a full 360 degree turn several times. The loud metallic crashing noise produced form the table only makes the zombie more hungry and angry as it was not given any tasty meat for consumption.


Zombie stretches it's arms out wide as it looks on over at the escaping medical personnel. Green zombie vomit is splattered across the back walls and is highly toxic. The wooden beams which are used to shackle the undead have a symbolic cross shape to represent heaven and hell and all things dead.


The very loud sound of the crashing table causes Dr Fisher to rapidly turn around as he exits the door, He rests his right hand onto the side of the door well. Sarah also rapidly turns her head at the commotion, Dr Logan on the other hand is more sublime and does not jump with panic clearly used to this and other zombies unpredictability. Dr Logan and the rest of the team are captivated and strangely controlled for a fleeting moment as they look back at the frustrated an rotten carcass.


The zombie rapidly turns and looks on over at Dr Logan and the others as it stretches it's arms out and growls loudly with frustration, The zombie rapidly gyrates and shakes as it lowers it's hands and continues to growl loudly. The zombie suddenly stops growling and shaking as if it was in some kind of protest and disliked Dr Logan's sudden exit from the room.


Dr Logan say's with a controlled and authoritative tone of voice, "That wasn't very nice you know,  Sarah is feeling slightly agitated as she looks around to Dr Fisher, Dr Logan continues as he squints his eyes fleetingly toward zombie, That wasn't very nice at all. Zombie growls as Dr Logan turns to look at Sarah. Dr Logan say's softly "Let's go as Dr Fisher immediately walks away from the door followed by Sarah. Logan has his left hand on the door handal as he looks down while closing the door carefully.


The irate zombie has become quieter but continues to growl, Sarah and Dr Fisher take a few steps forward into the corridor before stop