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Space is huge and that is a light statement, Space is astronomical in scale and even with earths best telescopes we can only see a very small percentage of the whole map. There is no conclusive evidence that space even ends it may go on and on and on for ever. Scientists believe that space is in a continuous expansion and it is increasing 10 fold at blinding speed. One of NASA's fundamental research criteria's is to establish and discover new worlds that are similar to our own. Planets that could support human life or even planets that support other life organisms often referred to as aliens are eagerly sought. Some rumors suggest there is another hidden planet within our own solar system called Planet X, This illusive planet is considered a conspiracy theory as many consider it a hoax but it could still exist. 


NASA have finally announced there may indeed be a planet on the edge of our solar system, Planet X, or Nibiru is thought to be a massive planet in the furthest corners of our solar system, which is heading right for us. This may sound incredible but if it is true there would then be the possibility that the planet could crash into earth causing great destruction and death. I consider the solar system a beautiful and perfectly evolving mechanism, Each planet goes around and around the sun with a powerful magnetic force, Each planet contributes to the next planet and the sun is the heart of the machine. If Nibiru crashed into Mars this would affect the gravitational mechanism which drives the planets around the sun. Could this create a magnetic reversal or an arced flow would planets shuffle and slow down. 


Nibiru effects on our solar system are quite large – it has tilted the whole solar system and is responsible for affecting the orbits of some of the other planets some scientists consider. One of the major proponents of the Planet X conspiracy theory is David Meade, a Christian conspiracy theorist who claims the planet will usher in seven years of nuclear war and natural disasters.
Despite these things not being very likely, there is quite a good chance a planet does exist. Meade has now claimed the eruptions of Mount Kilauea recently are connected to the arrival of the mysterious planet.


Chief conspiracist David Meade

He argues that Nibiru's approach weakens the magnetic field of the earth, and due to Planet X's gravitational pull, natural disasters like earthquakes and volcanic eruptions will become common on earth.
Natural disaster's such as volcanic eruptions tsunamis and earthquakes could all have been caused by Niribu's relatively close proximity to Earth, but all of this information is based on conspiracy theory's and can cause harm and distress to people if they actually believe it. Nasa claims the apocalyptic theory is a load of nonsense - although they admit that a harmless Planet X could be drifting at the edge of the Solar System.


Konstantin Batygin, a planetary astrophysicist at Caltech said in a NASA statement:
There are now five different lines of observational evidence pointing to the existence of Planet Nine.
If you were to remove this explanation and imagine Planet Nine does not exist, then you generate more problems than you solve. All of a sudden, you have five different puzzles, and you must come up with five different theories to explain them. Professor Batygin and his team could actually be on the cusp of officially discovering this planet, after indirectly observing evidence of its effects for some time.


Konstantin Batygin, a planetary astrophysicist

Scientists even think the planet could be responsible for the eventual destruction of the solar system – but that won’t be coming next week.
Linguist Zecharia Sitchin's controversial 1976 book Twelfth Planet claims that Nibiru is inhabited by an alien race called the Anunnaki, who are referred to in the Bible as the Nephilim.
He argued that ancient texts claimed that these mysterious space travelers had come to Earth looking for gold and other minerals.


Zecharia Sitchin

Zecharia Sitchin (July 11, 1920 – October 9, 2010) was an author of books proposing an explanation for human origins involving ancient astronauts. Sitchin attributed the creation of the ancient Sumerian culture to the Anunnaki, which he stated was a race of extraterrestrials from a planet beyond Neptune called Nibiru. He asserted that Sumerian mythology suggests that this hypothetical planet of Nibiru is in an elongated, 3,600-year-long elliptical orbit around the Sun. Sitchin's books have sold millions of copies worldwide and have been translated into more than 25 languages. Sitchin's ideas have been rejected by scientists and academics, who dismiss his work as pseudoscience and pseudohistory. His work has been criticized for flawed methodology and mistranslations of ancient texts as well as for incorrect astronomical and scientific claims.

Controversially, he also writes that the Anunnaki were unwilling to do the hard work themselves, so create a new slave race by blending their DNA with humans'.
His work forms the basis of many 'ancient astronaut' theories, that claim aliens visited the Earth and changed the path of human history - least of all by building the pyramids.


The Anunnaki

Sitchin also claimed that Nibiru has an elongated orbit around the Sun, which takes 3,600 years.
In 1995, Nancy Lieder - a woman who claims to have an implant in her brain from a childhood encounter with aliens - claimed that Nibiru would pass closely to Earth in 2003 with terrifying consequences.
She said that the Earth would stop spinning for exactly 5.9 terrestrial days, before the North and South Poles would physically move, disrupting the planet's magnetic core and causing the crust to split open across the planet.

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If by chance NASA does discover a planet similar to Earth it would still be impossible to reach it because of the great distances between planets solar systems and galaxies. Now scientists are working on technology that could one day provide light speed travel. The EM drive is such a thing originally proposed by Roger K Shawyer, a UK scientist who started Satellite Propulsion Research Ltd (SPR) to bring it to fruition. Built around the idea that electromagnetic microwave cavities might provide for the direct conversion of electrical energy to thrust, his concept was appealing because it offered propulsion without the need of propellant.


Electromagnetic drive thruster (EM Drive)

So what is an EM Drive? Also known as a radio frequency resonant cavity thruster, an EM Drive supposedly generates thrust without the need for a propellant. It’s an electromagnetic thrust produced by bouncing microwaves inside a cavity — like a person sitting inside a box and pushing from the inside to make it move. Plus, the total momentum generated by the EM Drive supposedly increases as it moves.

Roger Shawyer's emDrive Demonstration - 2006 (SPR Ltd)


Roger K Shawyer, a UK scientist who started Satellite Propulsion Research Ltd (SPR)

The appeal of such a technology is understandable. Not only would it mean cheaper spaceflight costs, it also translates to faster space travel. Here’s the catch, though. The physics of the EM Drive goes against Newton’s third law of motion — for every action, there’s an equal and opposite reaction, which is impossible to generate in space without a propellant.


Warp Drive Spaceship Design

A warp drive, which remains only possible in the realm of science fiction, refers to a faster-than-light (FTL) form of travel that breaks the speed of light by warping the fabric of space-time. “The bulk of scientific knowledge concludes that it’s impossible, especially when considering Einstein’s Theory of Relativity,” according to NASA.


The speed of light in a vacuum is 186,282 miles per second (299,792 kilometers per second), and in theory nothing can travel faster than light. In miles per hour, light speed is, well, a lot: about 670,616,629 mph. If you could travel at the speed of light, you could go around the Earth 7.5 times in one second. But if scientists were able to develop such technology, it could eventually lead to ships that can move at almost 10 per cent of the speed of light — far faster than any object controlled by humans has ever gone before. That means that a piloted ship could get to Alpha Centauri, a bright star 1.34 parsecs from us, in only 92 years. It would be an incredible human achievement to travel to another planet outside of our own solar system in many hundreds or even thousands of years from now.


Our solar system belongs in the Milky way galaxy which is a barred spiral galaxy with a diameter between 100,000 and 180,000 light years. The milky way is estimated to contain between 100 to 400 billion stars or suns and at least 100 billion planets. According to the best estimates of astronomers there are at least one hundred billion galaxies in the observable universe. They've counted the galaxies in a particular region, and multiplied this up to estimate the number for the whole universe but this number is likely to increase to about 200 billion as telescope technology in space improves. Recent estimates also claim a range of up to 2 trillion or more galaxies that contain more stars that all the grains of sand on planet Earth exist in the known universe.  So that's a lot of galaxies and planets in our universe and there is certainly a very good chance life exists elsewhere in the milky way. When you look at another galaxy which is many thousands of light years away you will conclude that it is so far away we could never reach it, that could also be a good estimate for other life forms that may be studying or observing our own galaxy they too are many thousands of light years away. 


The Milky Way Galaxy

Why is the universe so big? the big bang theory is one, The Big Bang Theory is the leading explanation about how the universe began. At its simplest, it says the universe as we know it started with a small singularity, then inflated over the next 13.8 billion years to the cosmos that we know today. On November 4, 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler space mission data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarf stars within the Milky Way galaxy. 11 billion of these estimated planets may be orbiting Sun-like stars.


Astronomers using the European Southern Observatory’s HARPS, a high precision instrument fitted to the 3.6m telescope at the Silla Observatory in Chile, studied 102 red dwarf stars neighboring the sun over a period of six years. Red dwarfs are smaller and cooler than the sun, however it’s been found that 40% of red dwarf stars may have Earth-sized planets orbiting them that have the right conditions for life.


The Swiss 1.2-metre Leonhard Euler Telescope (front) and the ESO 3.6-metre telescope (rear) at ESO's La Silla observatory. La Silla, in the southern part of the Atacama Desert of Chile was ESO's first observation site. The site is set 2400 metres above sea level, providing excellent observing conditions.

Chile’s Atacama Desert is one of the driest places in the world. It’s paradise for the professional astronomers who use ESO’s telescopes. Some of the world’s most powerful instruments for astronomical research are here.

ESOcast 85: Chile Chill 7 — "Visitors to the Desert"

“Our new observations with Harps mean that about 40% of all red dwarf stars have a super-Earth orbiting in the habitable zone where liquid water can exist on the surface of the planet,” said team leader Xavier Bonfils from the Observatoire des Sciences de l’Univers de Grenoble, France.


Astronomer Xavier Bonfils at Centre national de la recherche scientifique

“Because red dwarfs are so common – there are about 160 billion of them in the Milky Way – this leads us to the astonishing result that there are tens of billions of these planets in our galaxy alone.”
One day mankind may travel to another planet just like Earth how unbelievably awesome would that be to step outside of your own planet to go to another. This could take pressure off Earth as we are now becoming over population and we still have a lot to learn and a long long way to go. Philosophers have pointed out that the size of the universe is such that a near-identical planet must exist somewhere. In the far future, technology  may be used by humans to artificially produce an Earth analog by terraforming.

The multiverse theory suggests that an Earth analog could exist in another universe or even be another version of the Earth itself in a parallel universe. 


In layman's terms, the hypothesis states there is a very large—perhaps infinite—number of universes, and everything that could possibly have happened in our past, but did not, has occurred in the past of some other universe or universes. Is our universe unique? From science fiction to science fact, there is a concept that suggests that there could be other universes besides our own, where all the choices you made in this life played out in alternate realities. The concept is known as a "parallel universe," and is a facet of the astronomical theory of the multiverse. The other parallel world interacts with our own without us realizing it, 


If scientists could somehow tap into the alternative parallel world with the use of teleportation it could be possible to communicate or even travel to this other world. Imagine there being two of you and they both do the same identical things as you. So if you died your alter ego would also suffer the same fate or maybe not. If we could somehow change the outcome of how things play out we may even discover immortality. But these parallel worlds are slightly different and may not represent the exact and true mirror of our own lives. But the danger is that you as a person could get stuck in time and space if you did manage to travel to the other parallel world if something went wrong. Imagine being teleported again to the second parallel worlds third fourth or fifth parallel world things start to get very complicated.


4 Dimensional State Of Consciousness

Should we just accept what we have is it dangerous to hash and alter life's DNA and code, I always believe that life should be simple why do we complicate things, we as humans are explorers at heart and we also have an insatiable desire for knowledge and understanding. But with the principles of mathematics an equation would express the astronomical chance that we exist on a planet that has life. We as humans are looking out into space for a planet that we all ready survive on, Another way to explain it is you are sat on a ton of pure gold and are looking into the universe to find a few more bars we already have the gold but mans domain is always to expand just like the universe is. 


A strange form of parallel lives exists on earth today which is built into peoples genetic makeup, Described as a Doppelganger this literally means double-goer a non biologically related look alike or double of a living person. Online applications can now find your look a like in only a few seconds simply by uploading a clear image of your face. Michael Sheehan, an assistant professor of neurobiology and behavior at Cornell University says from a recent study,  that our faces have evolved due to the importance of individuality to our species. Think about it: you walk down a street and you see a multitude of faces. How many look almost the same? Now, take a walk in a park and look at the squirrels bandying about. Can you really tell them apart?

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“Humans are really phenomenally diverse, but you don’t see that in other species,” said Sheehan.
Just like the universe and all the galaxies and planets that live within, They too are different from one another like Mars and Earth. Each planet star and galaxy is independent of itself it lays great distances from another which indicates that all things require a certain space around them. We as people expect and need a personal space around us if someone stands to close it can become uncomfortable. Obviously planets need a space between other planets as they would otherwise collide and explode on impact. Some galaxies are actually moving towards each other, galaxies are bound by the gravity of the dark matter surrounding them, drawing them together and resisting the expansion. As it happens, our own galaxy, the Milky Way  finds itself in a close pair – and in 4 billion years from now, a gigantic collision will take place between it and its neighbor the Andromeda galaxy also known as M31.

The Andromeda Galaxy also known as Messier 31, M31 or NGC 224, is a spiral galaxy approximately 780 kiloparsecs (2.5 million light years) from Earth, and the nearest major galaxy to the Milky Way, The Andromeda galaxy spanning approximately 220,000 light years, is the largest galaxy in our Local Group, which is also home to the Triangulum Galaxy and other minor galaxies. The Andromeda Galaxy's mass is estimated to be around 1.76 times that of the Milky Way Galaxy (~0.8-1.5×1012 solar masses vs the Milky Way's 8.5×1011 solar masses).

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Andromeda is an exception to the rule, however, and is moving toward the Milky Way at about 250,000 miles per hour. (That's fast enough to get you from Earth to the Moon in one hour!) But while it has been known since then that M31 is moving in our general direction, we haven't been able to tell whether it's coming straight at us, or will glance off at an angle. Thanks to recent, painstaking measurements of the motion of Andromeda, taken using the Hubble Space Telescope, the issue has now been decided.After almost a century of speculation, Roeland Van der Marel and Sangmo Tony Sohn, astronomers at the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore Maryland have announced a clear picture of how events will unfold over the coming billions of years. They confirm that M31 is currently 2.5 million light-years away, that it is inexorably falling toward the Milky Way under the mutual pull of gravity between the two galaxies, and that we are on a collision course.


Roeland Van der Marel

Sangmo Tony Sohn

Supermassive Black Holes: Drains of the Universe?

The Milky Way is destined to collide with the Andromeda galaxy in four billion years from now.

From Earth, the encounter of both galaxies will be spectacular. (That is, if the human species survives long enough to see it!) For us here and now, however, advanced computer simulations based on the Hubble measurements will have to suffice. These have shown that both systems will eventually reshape into a single elliptical galaxy, similar to those commonly observed in the local universe. It is also likely that the merger will trigger an intense phase of creation of new stars, and that the super massive black holes at the centres of the two galaxies will merge. Although the shapes of the galaxies will be profoundly distorted during the collision, however, individual stars are unlikely to collide with each other because the space between them will still be huge.The scientists believe that the gravitational disturbance could cause the entire Solar System to change its position – the simulations show that it will probably be tossed much farther from the core of the galaxy than it is today. To make matters more complicated, M31’s small companion, the Triangulum galaxy. M33, will join in the collision and perhaps later merge with the Andromeda/Milky Way pair. There is even a small chance that M33 will hit the Milky Way first. Either way, it will take another two billion years after the collision for both agglomerations of stars to merge completely into a single galaxy. 


The Triangulum Galaxy is a Spiral Galaxy approximately 3 million light years from Earth in the constellation Triangulum. It is cataloged as Messier 33 or NGC 598. The Triangulum Galaxy is the third largest member of the Local Group of Galaxies behind the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy. It is one of the most distant permanent objects that can be viewed with the naked eye.


So in time another Earth like planet or several will appear on the Milky Way map and with a bit of luck one could be located near to our own solar system. It takes our solar system about 230 million years to complete one orbit around the galactic center. There are three general kinds of galaxies: elliptical, spiral and irregular. The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy.


Earth, the third planet from the Sun occupies what scientists sometimes refer to as the "Goldilocks zone, Its distance from our star means it is neither too hot, nor too cold to support liquid water - thought to be a key ingredient for life. Astronomers are searching for rocky planets like ours in the Goldilocks zones of other solar systems and stars. If man kind were to discover a suitable planet similar to our own it would have to fit into these criteria.
The first important factor is can mankind reach the planet, the suitable planet must be as close as possible to our own solar system, Secondly the planet must rotate around the star at a perfect distance to provide similar temperatures as our own earth. Thirdly it must have a breathable atmosphere like our own and it must be oxygen rich, Our planet has a lot of oxygen 21% in total which we breath, To our knowledge, the Earth is the only planet with an atmosphere of the right density and composition to make life possible. Other planets in the Solar System have atmospheres but they are too thick, hot, and acidic like on Venus or too thin and cold like on Mars. The outer gas planets can be considered mostly atmosphere but there is so much (many times the size of the Earth) and it is so turbulent that it can't be compared with Earth. Other bodies in the solar system like Mercury or the Moon have no atmosphere to speak of. The other possibility is that there are planets with atmospheres like ours outside the Solar System. Unfortunately, such a planet would be orbiting a star light years away and we have no technology that could possibly see a planet the size of the Earth at such a huge distance, much less know anything about its atmosphere. Although there is no way to know for certain if there are other planets like ours, we do know that there are other stars that look like the sun out there and these probably formed by similar processes.


Also we must consider if the planet has life living on its surface as if we entered the space of that new planet the lifeforms that are already there could be hostile. Mental health issues arise, can mankind mentally handle the change from one planet to another is it too early for mankind to travel to another earth like planet. An oxygen rich atmosphere has been found on Saturn's second largest moon, Rhea. Unfortunately other factors would disallow mankind ever moving to its surface, For one thing, the 932-mile-wide (1,500-kilometer-wide), ice-covered moon is more than 932 million miles (1.5 billion kilometers) from Earth. For another, the average surface temperature is -292 degrees Fahrenheit (-180 degrees Celsius).


This raw image of Saturns icy moon Rhea was taken on March 10, 2013 by NASAs Cassini spacecraft, and received on Earth March 10, 2013. The camera was ... Rhea: saturn's dirty snowball moon

And at less than 62 miles (100 kilometers) thick, the newfound oxygen layer is so thin that, at Earth like temperatures and pressure, Rhea's entire atmosphere would fit in a single midsize building. Still, the discovery implies that worlds with oxygen-filled air may not be so unusual in the cosmos.At about 327,000 miles (527,000 kilometers) from Saturn, Rhea orbits inside the planet's magnetic field. Rhea's oxygen atmosphere is believed to be maintained by the ongoing chemical breakdown of water ice on the moon's surface, driven by radiation from Saturn's magnetosphere. 


The Georgia Institute of Technology, commonly referred to as Georgia Tech, is a public research university and institute of technology located in the Midtown neighborhood of Atlanta, Georgia. It is a part of the University System of Georgia and has satellite campuses in Savannah, Georgia, Metz, France, Athlone, Ireland, Shenzhen, China and Singapore.The school was founded in 1885 as the Georgia School of Technology as part of Reconstruction plans to build an industrial economy in the post Civil War Southern United States. By 1901, its curriculum had expanded to include electrical, civil, and chemical engineering. In 1948, the school changed its name to reflect its evolution from a trade school to a larger and more capable technical institute and research university.

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New research from the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics suggests that exoplanets Kepler-62f and Kepler-186f — both of which reside in the habitable zone around their host stars — have very stable axial tilts, much like the Earth, making it likely that each has regular seasons and a stable climate. The planet Kepler 186f is 10% larger in radius than the earth orbiting a star of the size of mercury which is a dim red dwarf star. It is at a distance of 500 light years from the earth. As of now, there is No idea about its mass or atmosphere. So scientists continue to explore for new worlds that could possibly support life, In November 2013, astronomers reported, based on Kepler space mission data, that there could be as many as 40 billion Earth-sized planets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarfs in the Milky Way, 11 billion of which may be orbiting Sun-like stars. This staggering amount of planets would surely give mankind hope that we are not alone in the universe.


Planets change over time as planets have been around for billions of years, Some Planets that rotate in the habitual zone could eventually mature and become earth like planets similar to our own, A planet could also go the other way and die become barren and free of any life, Maybe a slight shift in axis is all that is needed to start the process or maybe if the planet moved slightly closer to its orbiting sun the seeds of life could start to grow. Life leaves many things that we simply will never know. It's hard to determine where we really came from but I think we simply evolved from the earth, we as humans are linked to all things in nature like gases minerals and bacteria as an example,  Maybe we are in something much bigger like an organism or large molecule, Maybe space is a giant nucleus and we are the DNA or some other matter that exists from within. I certainly disprove the Scientology theory that we came from outer space and were dropped off around volcanoes in DC-8 aircraft. The James Web telescope is our next best technological marvel that will penetrate further into the milky way and beyond. It will certainly discover more habitual planets in the near future and also provide more information on the planets atmosphere and chemical composition.


NASA's James Webb Space Telescope, scheduled for launch in 2021, will probe the cosmos to uncover the history of the universe from the Big Bang to alien planet formation and beyond. It will focus on four main areas: first light in the universe, assembly of galaxies in the early universe, birth of stars and protoplanetary systems, and planets (including the origins of life.)


The telescope will launch on an Ariane 5 rocket from French Guiana on the 30 March 2021, then take 30 days to fly a million miles to its permanent home: It will travel to a a gravitational stable location in space and orbit around L2 which is a position in space near Earth that lies opposite from the sun. This area in space has been a popular spot for several other space telescopes, including the Herschel Space Telescope and the Planck Space Observatory.
The powerful $8.8 billion spacecraft is also expected to take amazing photos of celestial objects like its predecessor, the Hubble Space Telescope. Luckily for astronomers, the Hubble Space Telescope remains in good health and it's probable that the two telescopes will work together for JWST's first years. The telescope will also look at exoplanets that the Keplar Space Telescope found for more information and follow up on real time observations from ground space telescopes. The telescope cost a huge 10 billion USD to research develop and build a staggering sum.


Archive photo of an Ariane 5 lifting off from Kourou, French GUiana. Photo Credit: Arianespace

James Webb Space Telescope - Documentary 2018 HD

Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977, One of it's main priorities is to study the outer Solar System, Voyager 1 launched 16 days after its twin (Voyager 2). Having operated for 40 years, 11 months and 5 days as of August 10, 2018, the spacecraft still communicates with the Deep Space Network to receive routine commands and return data. At a distance of 142.31 astronomical units (2.1289×1010 km; 1.3229×1010 mi) (21.289 billion kilometers; 13.229 billion miles) from the Sun as of June 4, 2018, it is the spacecraft most distant from Earth.


The probe's objectives included flybys of Jupiter, Saturn and Saturn's largest moon (Titan). While the spacecraft's course could have been altered to include a Pluto encounter by forgoing the Titan flyby, exploration of the moon which was known to have a substantial atmosphere took priority. It studied the weather, magnetic fields and rings of the two planets and was the first probe to provide detailed images of their moons. After completing its primary mission with the flyby of Saturn on November 12, 1980, Voyager 1 became the third of five artificial objects to achieve the escape velocity that will allow them to leave the Solar System. On August 25, 2012, Voyager 1 became the first spacecraft to cross the heliopause and enter the interstellar medium.

A Brief History of Voyager 1 and Voyager 2  from its launch, exploration of the outer solar system and its exodus into interstellar space

In a further testament to the robustness of Voyager 1, the Voyager team completed a successful test of the spacecraft's trajectory correction maneuver (TCM) thrusters on November 28, 2017. The last time these backup thrusters were fired up was in November 1980. Voyager project manager Suzanne Dodd anticipates that successful use of the TCM thrusters will extend the Voyager mission by an additional "two to three years" Voyager 1's extended mission is expected to continue until around 2025 when its radiosotope thermoelectric generators will no longer supply enough electric power to operate its scientific instruments.

Voyager 1 is expected to reach the theorized Oort cloud in about 300 years and take about 30,000 years to pass through it. Though it is not heading towards any particular star, In about 40,000 years it will pass within 1.6 light years of the star Gliese 445, which is at present in the constellation Camelopardalis. That star is generally moving towards the Solar System at about 199km/s (430,000 km/h; 270,000 mph). NASA says that "The Voyagers" are destined perhaps eternally to wander the Milky Way. 
And the idea that either Voyager could be programmed to return back to Earth is extremely unlikely as neither probe has much fuel left, If the probes stay intact they will just continue to travel forever further away from Earth.


When Voyager 1 and 2 were launched a Golden record was placed inside the probes, These records contain sounds and images selected to portray the diversity of life and culture on Earth and are intended for any intelligent extraterrestrial life form or for future humans who may find them. The records are considered a type of "Time Capsule".


The record is constructed of gold-plated copper and is 12 inches (30 cm) in diameter. The record's cover is aluminium and electroplated upon it is an ultra-pure sample of the isotope uranium-238. Uranium 238 has a half life of 4.468 billion years. It is possible via mass-spectrometry  that a civilization that encounters the record will be able to use the ratio of remaining uranium to the other elements to determine the age of the record. The records also had the inscription "To the makers of music – all worlds, all times" hand-etched on its surface. The inscription was located in the "takeout grooves", an area of the record between the label and playable surface. Since this was not in the original specifications, the record was initially rejected, to be replaced with a blank disc. Sagan later convinced the administrator to include the record as is. 

Music On Voyager Record Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 in F. First Movement, Munich Bach Orchestra, Karl Richter, conductor.

Voyager Golden Record - Sounds of Earth

Blank records were provided by the Pyral S.A. of Creteil France, CBS Records contracted the JVC Cutting Center in Boulder Colarado to cut the lacquer masters which were then sent to the James G Lee record processing center in Gardena, California to cut and gold plate (Eight) Voyager records, After the records were plated they were mounted in aluminium containers and delivered to JPL.


The Voyager Golden Record contains 116 images plus a calibration image and a variety of natural sounds, such as those made by surf, wind, and thunder, and animal sounds, including the songs of birds, whales and dolphins. The record, which is carried on both the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecrafts, additionally features musical selections from different cultures and eras, spoken greetings in fifty-nine languages, Other human sounds like footsteps and laughter (Carl Sagan's) and printed messages from President Jimmy Carter and U.N. Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim. The items were selected for NASA by a committee chaired by Carl Sagan of Cornell University.


Carl Sagan’s legendary message to aliens, the Voyager Golden Record, to get first vinyl release

After NASA had received criticism over the nudity on the Pioneer plaque (line drawings of a naked man and woman), the agency chose not to allow Sagan and his colleagues to include a photograph of a nude man and woman on the record. Instead, only a silhouette of the couple was included. Here is an excerpt of President Carter's official statement placed on the Voyager spacecraft for its trip outside the Solar System, June 16, 1977. 


James Earl Carter Jr. is an American politician who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981. He previously was the 76th Governor of Georgia from 1971 to 1975, after two terms in the Georgia State Senate from 1963 to 1967. Born 1st October 1924 (age 93 years).

We cast this message into the cosmos ... Of the 200 billion stars in the Milky Way galaxy, some – perhaps many – may have inhabited planets and space faring civilizations. If one such civilization intercepts Voyager and can understand these recorded contents, here is our message: This is a present from a small distant world, a token of our sounds, our science, our images, our music, our thoughts, and our feelings. We are attempting to survive our time so we may live into yours. We hope some day, having solved the problems we face, to join a community of galactic civilizations. This record represents our hope and our determination and our goodwill in a vast and awesome universe.

The definitive work about the Voyager record is "Murmurs of Earth" by Executive Director, Carl Sagan, Technical Director, Frank Drake, Creative Director, Ann Druyan, Producer, Timothy Ferris, Designer, Jon Lomberg, and Greetings Organizer, Linda Salzman. Basically, this book is the story behind the creation of the record, and includes a full list of everything on the record. "Murmurs of Earth", originally published in 1978, was reissued in 1992 by Warner News Media with a CD-ROM that replicates the Voyager record. Unfortunately, this book is now out of print, but it is worth the effort to try and find a used copy or browse through a library copy. An amazing record that I imagine every record collector on Earth would want in there collection.


Fox Searchlight Pictures Musical Intro


Synthesizer beeps and drums beats are heard.

The First Time I Saw Jupiter

The sound of chatter and laughter is heard.


Deep synthesizer bass notes are also heard.


People are dancing drinking and having fun.


Rhoda is snogging with her boyfriend.


A mellow trance sound is heard.


The music fades softly as Rhoda expresses her experiences and thoughts on Astrophysics. Rhoda say's, I saw this image when I was a kid. The photograph of Jupiter taken by NASA's Voyager. "Beautiful" But nothing special until shown in rapid succession.


Jupiter starts to animate as the storm clouds spins around the giant gas planets surface. Rhoda continues, Suddenly Jupiter was alive, "Breathing" I was hypnotized. The beeping electronic sound can be heard playing.

Rhoda continues, I was 17 when I got my acceptance letter to MIT.  Rhoda continues, I was 17 when I got my acceptance letter to MIT. 
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering. The Institute is traditionally known for its research and education in the physical sciences and engineering, but more recently in biology, economics, linguistics, and management as well, MIT is often ranked among the world's top universities.


A male voice is heard loudly saying, One Two Three, MIT, A female voice responds, Okay Wait. Rhoda continues, I felt like anything was possible, Rhoda chuckles as her boyfriend gets soaked in alcohol.

Rhoda say's to her boyfriend as she looks at her bottle of drink, I don't want to eat the apple of cynicism. Rhoda then looks into the top of the bottle with her right eye as she expresses her comment. (Cynicism tends to poison one's outlook, always assumes the worst in people always looking for the bad and seeing it, seeing ulterior motives when none may be)


Rhoda say's, "And it was," (Music score increases in volume as (Another Earth) flashes onto the screen.


Another Earth logo flashes onto the screen.


The sound of a car engine is heard as Rhoda turns the key to start the engine.


Bob The Robot (Fall On Your Sword)


A low rumbling is heard as Rhoda's long blonde hair blows in the light and cool night air.

The car radio automatically starts to play, A light and mellow electronic keyboard sound is heard accompanied by light drum beats as Rhoda moves her head up and down with the rhythmic beat that reflects in the cars wing mirror.

The radio station is broadcasting its theme tune, The words "♪Flava♪" ♪Flava♪" are heard at a higher than normal male voice chord,  The words are electronically altered for effect "♪Flava♪" ♪Flava♪" is heard again.

The male radio voice begins to talk to his listeners, He say's, Yo, what's up baby?, It's your boy Flava - He emphasis the letters, F-L-A-V-A. That is your dude with the big mouth! Yo! I don't know if you heard the news, but the scientists say... They just discovered another planet super close to us...With the conditions that could support life? Really? Well, now it's visible up in the night sky. They say if you look just East of the North Star, you'll see it. It's a little blue spot. I want all you lovers out there to make a wish... On a tiny blue star. 

Flava continues, As I play this hot joint for you right now. It's your boy Flava! A deep jungle sound rhythm is heard as Rhoda continues to drive home. As Rhoda becomes more mesmerized by the radio sounds and the cool night air she starts to look out of her window to see if she can see the other planet.

Further ahead a car is parked by the road crossing adjacent to Beach St.  A light and middle toned piano key is heard as voices echo out into the night. A mans voice is heard saying "That's easy" A female voice is then heard saying "What rhymes with... "Honey"?, A young male child is then heard answering the question, "Money" the young child say's. Laughter is heard at the childs response. The male voice then is heard saying, He's like, "All right, enough with it!" The male voice laughs some more and then say's, What rhymes- Let's do some animals. The male voice say's to the female voice, You wanna give him some animals? The woman replies "Yeah" The man say's What rhymes with- The woman replies "Lion"?  The man say's softly "Oh my gosh!. The young child replies "Pion" The man laughs at the childs response in satisfaction of the answer. The father of the child laughs again with fun and satisfaction as his son replies with "A Pion" The man responds with enthusiasm, "A small Puma of the high Himalayas" 


The young child beams with happiness as he answers the questions correctly.


A rattling of a toy robot is heard as the mother of the small child say's Did we figure out what this guy's name is? (referring to the robot).

The child hesitates and then say's sweetly "Bob" The woman responds by saying enthusiastically "Bob the Robot" The piano score is still playing as the camera slowly zooms up into the night sky, The boy presses a switch that is attached to a long chord that operates Bob the Robot" "Go ahead is heard as the child activates the robots voice controls.


The mood changes slightly as the man starts to feel the stomach of his pregnant wife, The woman say's "Feel her" The man responds "She's in there all right! Both parents laugh as the woman replies " I hope so" The parents then kiss each other in anticipation of there new born child and the love for each other. The young child decides it is his turn to ask a question, He say's softly, What rhymes with..."Light"?, The father responds loudly, "Light"?- The mother replies Oh, that's a good one.


Suddenly from no where a car at high speed crashes directly into the front of the unaware families car head on creating a huge and loud crashing sound. A long and loud skidding is heard as well as a torrent of broken glass.


Low level breathing is heard as Rhoda touches her bloodied face, Rhoda is in shock and stays put in her driver passenger side as she tries to gather composure. 


The families saloon car has been badly damaged, The front wind screen has been smashed out from the impact and no movement of any kind can be detected.


A low level deep rumbling sound is heard as Rhoda starts to cough blood. Rhoda reaches for the door handle to step outside.


Rhoda struggles to exit the vehicle and falls momentarily to her knees as she desperately tries to recover from the heavy impact she sustained.


Rhoda places one hand onto her vehicle to steady herself as she looks on over at the wreckage of the families saloon.


Rhoda knows she is in trouble and is now concerned for the occupants of the car she had just moments ago smashed into.


Rhoda has a concerned look on her face as she slowly limps on over to the stationary vehicle.


A light steam emanates from the vehicles bent frame as Rhoda gradually gets closer to the carnage. 


Rhoda's light footsteps are heard and the occasional high pitched squeaking sound.


The brightness of the moon lights up the devastation. Mrs Burroughs is motionless and the indication is suggesting that she has died.


More steam and silvery smoke is smoldering from the heavily impacted engine, Rhoda coughs and splutters as she makes her way around the side of the vehicle.


Rhoda opens the drivers side door to check on the occupants.


Mr Burroughs has quite clearly sustained an injury and has been knocked out cold from the heavy collision.


Blood is visible from Mr Burroughs head as he sits motionless.


Rhoda suddenly turns away from Mr Burroughs as low level ambulance and police sirens can be heard in the distance slowly increasing in loudness. Rhoda's mouth shakes as she breathes in the cold night air. 


Rhoda breaks away from the distant sounds as she turns her attention back to inside the car. Rhoda spots a child's teddy bear in the back seat.


Rhoda has now realized there may be a child involved in the collision as well, Rhoda's face is extremely concerned but also she is scared and suffering from shock. Rhoda wants to discover all the damage she has caused so in some way it can provide a little relief.


Rhoda can not see any children in the back seat and now has a hunch that a child may be seriously hurt. She pulls away from the car space and stands upright as she looks on over into the distance.

Sirens are getting louder as Rhoda limps slowly across the debris laden road surface.

Rhoda has her eyes transfixed to something in the distance, A low level crunching is heard as Rhoda struggles and limps towards something of interest. She buckles slightly as she moves forward from the leg injuries she sustained. Rhoda takes a few more steps as her eyes stay fixed to something in the darkness. Sirens are getting much louder now and it will be just a few short moments before the emergency services arrive. This moment in time from the collision to her discovery will ultimately affect Rhoda for many years to come.


Rhoda stops in her tracks as she looks down onto a small child's body that lays face down. Unfortunately the child was flung from the saloon vehicle from the incredibly powerful impact. It is imperative that every person that rides in a car wears a seat-belt including all small children.

Rhoda is frozen in time as she looks down at the motionless child. 


A deep rumbling sound is heard as Rhoda looks on down at the dead child with shock and bewilderment. Flashes of light are visible from behind Rhoda as the emergency services close in.


A prison security system records and watches every move Rhoda makes. Rhoda has been incarcerated for the collision and she is in her prison cell reflecting on the terrible mistakes she made that fateful night.


Rhoda has been locked up in 0026 E Cell 10 for Women - 0010. Rhoda's cell is small and very basic, It also looks rather uncomfortable as no bed is in sight only a hard wooden bench.


Time has moved on and Rhoda has been incarcerated for four long years. The story continues four years later. Birds can be heard chirping along with a low level guitar sound and passing cars. A male conspiracy theorist's voice can be heard explaining some relevant facts about the new planet.


He say's, And by all appearances, the, uh, planet... Seems to be a mirror to our own.


The conspiracy theorist continues, from the continental structures to the oceans, Even their cities are our cities. 


A scientific meeting is being held live on television. A security prison guard is watching the TV from his high security office. A reporter shouts out to the scientific team, "And where are we in terms of Communication?"


Dr Anna Sabine from the science team responds, That's exactly my point, If this planet is sustaining intelligent life...

Rhoda suddenly appears at the prison security hatch as the female science officer continues, "Of comparable levels to our own".  The prison guard stands up and attends to Rhoda, He hands Rhoda a release form that he places flat to the counter surface.

Mathematician Engineer Dr Paul Caldwell from Columbia responds to the female science officers comments. He say's, That's a very significant point, So far we have nothing. We have a jumble of radio signals, the strongest of which are military radars. Astrophysicist Dr Anna Sabine from the Chilean Observatory responds, But even those radio signals are not something we can parse out and understand.

A male science officers voice is heard, We don't, even know it really exists. Rhoda is signing the release paperwork so that she can finally leave the incarceration unit. The science officer continues, It could be some cosmic mirror of sorts. A reporter responds to the information he has just heard, He say's, You've written extensively about that. ..


The reporter continues, As the most likely explanation for why it's identical to our own planet. Astrophysicist Dr David Meplar explains, This planet exists, It has mass and it has a clearly detectable orbit.


Dr David Meplar continues, It's even having radio signals, Rhoda slowly walks out of the women's incarceration center with paper work in hand. She looks up and starts to appreciate the sunshine and being outside again after being locked up for four long years. 


Rhoda has recovered from her injuries and is slowly making her way along a busy road. Cars drive by as birds chirp. A synthesizer middle toned key plays out continuously as Rhoda takes in the scenery.


A man wearing a bug eyed face mask walks by from across the road maybe affected by Earth two's projector y. Rhoda senses the man from across the way and turns to look at him. The man looks back as he continues to walk along the path.


Rhoda senses that life is somewhat different since the road accident and the discovery of Earth Two.

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